A history of the First Bulgarian Empire

Steven Runciman

 

Index

 

__A_  —  __B_  —  __C_  —  __D_  —  __E_  —  __F_  —  __G_  —  __H_  —  __I_  —  __J_  —  __K_  —  __L_  —  __M_  —  __N_  —  __O_  —  __P_  —  __Q_  —  __R_  —  __S_  —  __T_  —  __U_  —  __V_  —  __W_  —  __X_  —  __Y_  —  __Z_

 

Note : Except in the case of princes and prelates, where a definite surname, not merely a title, is known, the person is given under the surname.

 

A.

Aachen, 82, 151

Aaron, Comitopulus, rise to power, 217-9; death, 230—1; 224, 244

Aaron, Prince, son of John Vladislav, 257

Abasgians, 124

Abodriti, 81—2

Abroleba, 49

Abydos, 238

Achelous, battle, 161, 162

Achilleus, Saint, 222, 231

Acum, a Hun, 6

Adam, 193

Adrian, Saint, 86

Adrianople, captured by Krum, 63-5, 68, by Symeon, 158-9, 166—7; raided by Samuel, 237—8; prisoners from, 65, 71, 79, 85-6; 22, 24, 49, 52, 53, 54, 57, 58, 73, 74, 75, 89, 95, 144, 208, 234, 282, 291, 292, 293

Adriatic Sea, 99, 174, 221, 226, 233, 240

Ægean Sea, 151, 227, 336

African califate, negotiations with Symeon, 168-9

Africanus, chronological system of, 278

Agatha Chryselia, Tsaritsa, 232

Agathias, historian, 7, 265

Agathonice, 72-3

Agathopolis, 172, 179

Albanian Mountains, 23, 92, 122, 216, 240, 245

Albigeois, heretics, 196, 270

Alciocus, Bulgar chieftain, 19, 20, 21

Alexander, Emperor, reign, 155; 148, 153, 154, 199

Alexandria, 99, 269

Alexius I, Commenus, Emperor, 258

Alogobatur, Bulgar general, 176, 285

Alps, mountains, 82

Alusian, Bulgar prince, 257

Alzeco, Bulgar chieftain, 21

Amasea, 288

Anastasius, Emperor, 6

—, Bibliothecarius, Roman writer, 288

Anatolia, Anatolics, 55, 62

Anchialus, deserted, 59; ceded to Bulgaria, 90-1, 95; 31, 32, 38, 42, 47, 53, 68, 74, 142, 151, 172

Angelarius, disciple of Methodius, 125, 126

Angeli family, 258

Anna, Saint, 192

— , Empress, daughter of Leo VI, 300

— , Porphyrogenneta, Grand Princess of Russia, 180, 226

— , Bulgar princess, 133

Antae, Slav tribe, 10, 22, 25

Antioch, 99, 230, 269-70

Aplaces, John, Imperial general, 61-2

Apocaucus, Imperial stratege, 229

Aprus, fort, 65

Arabs, 26, 33, 41, 92 (see also Saracens); Arabic writers, 269

Arcadiopolis (Lule Burgas), battle, 207; 67, 75, 291

Arianism, 118

Arianites, David, Imperial general, 246, 249

Aristotle, 137

Armenia, Armenians: writers, 269; colonies in Thrace, 35, 47, 217, 227; influence of in Bulgaria, 95, 107, 191-2, 232; 79, 99, 159, 228, 244, 257

Arnulf, King of Germany, 133, 145

Arpad, Magyar chieftain, 145

Arsenius, Higumene, 123

Artana, River, 38

Asen, family of, 260

 

325

 

 

326

 

Ashot, Prince of Taron, 228-9, 232, 239-40

Asperuch (Isperikh), Khan, reign, 25-30; dates, 273-8; 3, 4, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 24, 43, 51, 58, 202, 261

Atelkuz, 249

Athanasius, Saint, 139

Athens, 251-2

Attica, 229

Attila, is Avitokhol? 279-81; 4, 5, 12, 35, 51

Austria, 149

Avars, conquer Bulgars, 10; Bulgars revolt from, 14-15; in Pannonia, 19, 50-2; 3, 23, 24, 27, 28, 67, 68, 80, 97, 280, 281

Avitokhol, Khan, is Attila ? 279-81; dates, 273-8; 11

Azmak, River, 73

Azov, Sea of, 3, 6, 7, 12, 20

 

B.

Bagdad, 169

Baian (Batbaian), Khan, 3,16,17, 276

— , boyar, 39, 40

Bakadzhik, 32, 33, 36, 74

Balathistes, forest, 241

Balaton, Lake, 97, 115

Baldric, Marquis of Friuli, 83

Baltic Sea, 22, 99, 150, 186

Baltzene, 72—3

Bardas, Caesar, 99, 101

Bari, 270

Basil I, the Macedonian, Emperor, relations with Rome, 112-14, 117, 119-20; and Slavonic Liturgy, 124-6; 118, 123, 135,261

— II, Bulgaroctonus, Emperor, character, 223; First Bulgar campaign, 224-5; campaign in Macedonia, 227-8; yearly campaigns in Bulgaria, 234-8, 240-4; final campaigns, 245-9; Bulgaria submits to, 249—52; his settlement of Bulgaria, 255-6; 198, 219, 222, 226, 257, 267, 268, 269

— , writer, List of, 282

— the Bogomil, 194

— the Paracoemomenus, 212, 223

Bavaria, 19

Belgrade, 81, 95, 118, 126, 144

Belisarius, Imperial general, 9

Belitsa, 136

Benedict VII, Pope, 226

Benevento, 21

Benjamin, Bulgar prince, 177, 189

Berat, 252

Berrhoea in Thrace (Beroe) 47, 59

— in Macedonia, 226—7, 228, 229, 235, 247

Berzetians, Slav tribe, 41

Bessarabia, 12, 26, 27, 80, 81, 279

Bezmer, Khan, dates, 273-8; 16, 27

Bithynia, 32, 38, 128

Bitolia (Monastir), 243, 249

Bizya, 166

Blachernae, quarter of Constantinople, 67, 156, 179

Black Sea, 7, 21, 27, 38, 40, 52, 60, 66, 143, 171, 186, 202, 225, 235

Boa, Queen of the Sabirs, 7

Bobus, Paul, Magister, 234

Boeotia, 229

Bogas, John, Patrician, 159-60

Bogdan, Bulgar official, 249

Bogomil, Pope, heresiarch, 190-6, 259, 260

Bogomils, heretics, tenets, 190-6; writings, 271-2; 220, 231, 239, 256, 260

Bohemia, 97, 149

Boris I (Michael), Khan or Prince, reign, 90-130; conversion, 102-6; joins Roman Church, 108-13; deserts Rome, 113-14; abdicates, 130; returns, 134-6; second retirement, 136; during Magyar invasion, 146; death, 152; 143, 144, 150, 157-8, 258-9, 261, 266, 270, 286, 293-4, 302

— II, Tsar, reign, 205; captured in Preslav, 209-10; abdication, 215; death, 220-1; 200, 204, 217, 219

— , Tarkan, 126, 286

Bosnia, 196

Bosograd, 247

Bosphorus, 64, 161, 166

Boteniates, Theophylact, Imperial general, 241, 242

Bourbon family, 258

Bovianum, 21

Boyana, 246

Branichevtsi, Slav tribe, 82

Branimir, Prince of Croatia, 119

Bregalnitsa, 129, 135-6

 

 

327

 

Brod, River, 247

Bucellarian theme, 257

Bulgar, town, 18, 168

Bulgarophygon, battle, 147

Burdizus, 89, 291

Burgas, Gulf of, 31, 33, 38, 40, 58, 60, 160, 180, 292

Burugundi, Hunnic tribe, 7, 16

 

C.

Cain, 193

Calabria, 99, 101

Calocyras, Patrician, 200-3, 208-9, 304-5

Calomela, daughter of Eve, 193

Cameniates, John, historian, 269

Candich, Khagan of the Avars, 10

Cardia, castle, 243

Carloman, King of Germany, 97, 102

Carolingian family, 100, 103, 107, 270

Carpathian Mountains, 19, 51, 93, 96, 149

Carus, Papal legate, 168, 173

Castile, royal house of, 258

Castoria, 218, 247, 251

Catacalon, Imperial general, 147

Catasyrtae, first battle, 161; second battle, 165

Cathari, heretics, 193, 196

Catherine, Bulgar princess, Empress, 257

Caucasus Mountains, 6, 15

Cecaumenus, Imperial general, 221-2, 269

Cedrenus, George, historian, 267

Ceductus, 61, 75

Cevennes Mountains, 196

Chaerosphactus, Leo, Magister, ambassador and letter-writer, 146-8, 152, 268

Charles the Great (Charlemagne), Western Emperor, 50, 51, 52

Charles the Bald, King of Western Franks, 91

Chatalar inscription, 77, 274

Cherna, River, 243, 247

Cherson, 30, 200, 203, 213, 226

China, 4

Chinialus, Cotrigur chieftain, 8

Chirotmetus, 243-4

Christopher, Lecapenus, Emperor, 179, 187

Chryselius, John, father-in-law of Samuel, 226, 239-40

Chryselius, Theodore, 240

Cimbalongus, defile, 240-2

Cimmerians, 5, 6

Cinamon, Greek slave, 80, 89, 283

Clement, Saint and martyr, 116

— , Saint, disciple of Methodius, leaves Moravia, 125-6; in Macedonia, 135-6, 138; death, 152-3; and Slavonic alphabets, 140, 298-9; 127, 220, 254, 268

Clidion. See Cimbalongus

Cnenus, Bulgar official, 175, 287

Colonea in Epirus, 251

Comasius, Saint, 129

Constans II, Emperor, 3, 26

Constantia, 72-3 (Costanza), 180, 212

Constantinacius, Quaestor, 146 Constantine III, Emperor, 13

— IV, Pogonatus, Emperor, 3, 26

— V, Copronymus, Emperor, campaigns in Bulgaria, 35—43, 24, 49, 53, 58, 66, 68, 289, 290

— VI, Emperor, 47-9, 61

— VII, Porphyrogennetus, Emperor, birth, 153; marriage negotiations, 156-7, 163, 299- 301; death, 198; writings, 176, 180, 181, 268-9, 283, 287, 293-4, 296-7; 266, 302

— VIII, Emperor, 198

— Saint. See Cyril

— Bishop, Bulgar author, 139

Constantinople, sieges: by Avars, 19, 23-4, by Justinian II, 30-1, by Arabs, 33, by Krum, 63-5, by Thomas, 75, by Symeon, 156-7; Bulgar embassies at, 39, 59, 71-4, 92, 155, 178-83, 199, 202-3, 303-5; councils at, 113-4, 119-20; and Rome, 99-100, 122; Moravian embassy to, 98, 101-2; Methodius at, 123-4; Symeon’s interview at, 169-72; Great Palace at, 79; influence on Bulgaria, 259-61; and passim throughout.

Contostephanus, Imperial general, 224-5

Copts, 99

Cordyles, Governor of exiled Macedonians, 85, 87, 294

Corinth, city, 170; gulf of, 159; Isthmus of, 229

Cormesian plain, 20

 

 

328

 

Cosmidium, 169

Cosmos, Greek merchant, 144

Cotrag, son of Kubrat, 3, 16

Cotragi. See Cotrigurs

Cotrigurs, Bulgar tribe, 7-10, 15, 18, 23

Crenites, Procopius, 145

Creta, village, 240

Crete, 198

Crimea, 6, 7, 200, 203

Croatia, Croats: missions to, 283; invaded by Omortag, 83; war with Symeon, 175-6; Pannonian Croatia, 82, 87, 91, 118; 24, 25, 51, 81, 117, 119, 149, 151, 178, 196, 252, 285, 297

Crobatus. See Kubrat

Cronus, Bulgar ambassador, 287

Cupharas, Theodore, Greek slave, 102-3

Curcuas, John, Imperial general, 208

— , Romanus, 257

Curticius, Imperial general, 145

Cuturgur, 6

Cyril, Saint, sets out for Moravia, 101; dies at Rome, 115-16; 138, 140, 261, 268, 271, 283, 297-9

Cyrillic alphabet, 161; 140-1, 297-9

Czechs, Slav tribe, 24, 97

 

D.

Dacians, 80

Dagobert, King of the Franks, 29

Dalmatia, 23, 24, 114, 117, 119, 270, 283

Damascene, St. John, 139

Damian, Patriarch of Bulgaria, 174,182, 216

Danube, River, crossed by Bulgars, 3-4, 20, 25-7, 273-8; by Slavs, 22-4; by Magyars, 145-6; Petchenegs at, 159-60; crossed by Russians, 201-2, 205; Bulgar possessions beyond, 65, 80, 93, 150; see also Bessarabia, Transylvania, Wallachia, and passim throughout.

Daonin, port, 65

Daphnomelas, Eustathius, Patrician, 240, 250-1

Dargomer, Bulgar ambassador, 59, 70

David, Comitopulus, 217, 218-19 (or John), Patriarch of Bulgaria, 245, 249, 256

Debritsa (Drembitsa), 136

Demetrius, Saint, 20, 23, 227, 236

— , Patriarch of Bulgaria, 182

Demosthenes, 137

Dengisich, Prince of the Huns, 279

Develtus, captured by Krum, 58, 68; ceded by Bulgaria, 90. 95; and peace of, 927, 172, 180; 31, 53, 73, 74, 142, 152, 155, 288

Devol, River, 104, 128, 250

Diampolis, 37

Didymotichum, 227

Dinea, 211

Dioclea (Montenegro), 232, 240, 245

Diogenes, Constantine, Imperial general, 243, 246, 247-8, 252

Ditzeng, boyar, 71, 79

Ditzina, River, 180

Dnieper, River, 3, 69, 81, 167; cataracts, 214

Dniester, River, 3, 27, 145, 149

Dobr the Bogomil, 194

Dobromir, Bulgar general, 235

— the younger, 250

Dobrudja, 26, 28, 38

Dometa, Bulgar official, 128

Dometian, Karkan, 243, 244, 287

Dominic, Saint, 196

Dominic, Bishop of Treviso, 112

Don, River, 3, 10, 15, 16, 18, 81, 279

Donatus, Bishop of Ostia, 113

Dragomir, Prince of Terbunia, 233

Dragomuzh, Bulgar general, 249

Dragovitsa, 193

Drave, River, 83, 97

Draxan, Bulgar general, 236

Drina, Black, River, 104

Dristra, Patriarchal, 322, 174, 181, 215-16, 219; held by Russians, 209-14; 135, 144, 146, 201, 217, 247

Dryinopolis, 251

Dual Procession. See Filioque

Ducas, Andronicus, 258

Duks, Bulgar prince, 118, 139

Dukum, boyar, 71

Dulcigno, 232

Dulo, family of, 11, 12, 13, 14, 29, 30, 35, 258, 273, 280

Dyrrhachium, captured by Samuel, 225-6; betrayed, 239-40; attacked by John Vladislav, 246, 248; 22, 148, 153, 159, 170, 232, 251

 

 

329

 

E.

Ekhatch, Eschatzes, The Sampses, 126, 286

Ekusous, Ecosus, a Bulgar, 58

Elbe, River, 22

Elemagus, Bulgar general, 252

Elitzes, Bulgar general, 243

Ennodius, historian, 270

Enotia, castle, 244

Enravotas, Bulgar prince, martyred, 89-90; 84,103, 285,293

Epiphanius, writer, 282

Epirus, 251

Ergenz, River, 67

Erkesiya. See Fence, Great

Ermi, family of, 11, 13, 273

Ernach, Ernak, Prince of the Huns, is Irnik, 279-81; 12, 16

Eroticus, Nicephorus, Patrician, 203

Esztergom, 77

Etzboclia, Bulgar general, 175, 287

Eumathius, engineer, 54-5

Eupraxia, Bulgar princess, 133

Eusebius, Saint, 129

Eustathius, Imperial admiral, 145, 146

Euthymius, Patriarch of Constantinople, 154

Eutychius, Patriarch of Alexandria, 269, 300

Eve, 193

 

F.

Fence, the Great, of Thrace, construction, 73, 288-90; 33, 74, 75, 76, 77, 90, 199, 215, 304

Filimer, King of the Goths, 4

Filioque Clause, 108, 112, 119

Formosus, Pope, Legate in Bulgaria, 109, 111-13; 115, 122-3

France, 50

Franks, 50, 81-3, 85, 87, 91, 97, 129, 153. See Carolingian family

Friuli, 83

Frunticus, Bulgar ambassador, 120

 

G.

Gabriel, Bulgar prince, 133

— , or Germanus, Patriarch of Bulgaria, 219

— -Radomir (or Romanus), Tsar, accession, 242-3; murder of, 244-5; 230, 231, 233-4, 250, 257, 287

— Galaxidi, 174, 230

Ganus, hill, 65

Genesius, chronicler, 266, 291

George, Saint, Miracles of, 271

— (Hamartolus) the Monk,

— chronicle of, 266, 291; Slavonic translation, 271; Continuation, 267

— , Bishop of Belgrade, 118

— , Regent. See Sursubul

Georgia, Georgians, 124

Gepids, 5, 8, 22

Germanus, Saint, 129

— , Caesar, 9

— , Patriarch of Constantinople, 33

— , Patriarch of Bulgaria. See Gabriel

Germany, 10, 50, 67, 82, 100, 101, 108, 116, 130. See Arnulf, Charles, Louis, Kings of Germany.

Getae, 5

Glabas, Basil, 234

Glagolitic alphabet, 101, 140-1, 297-9

Glavenitza, 128

Glycas, historian, 267

Goinic, Serbian prince, 92

Golden Gate of Constantinople, 32, 48, 215

— Horn, 64, 156, 169

Gonitziates, George, Imperial general, 246

Gorazd, disciple of Methodius, 125

Gostun, Khan, 11, 13, 14, 273, 277

Goths, 4, 22, 117

Grammus, Mount, 104

Greece, Greek peninsula, 9, 47, 150, 174

Gregory, Patriarch of Bulgaria, 182

— , Prince of Taron, 228-9

— , Presbyter, writer, 139

Grimoald, Lombard King, 21

— , Bishop of Polimarti, 112

Grod (Gordas or Gordian), King of Crimean Huns, 7-8

 

H.

Hadrian II, Pope, 112-16

— III, Pope, 125

Haemus Mountains, 24, 27, 34, 73

Hebdomum, 179

Helena, Lecapena, Empress, 163, 301

Hellas, theme, 251

Hellespont, 65, 164

 

 

330

 

Hemnecus, 175, 287

Heraclea, 61, 65, 165

Heraclius, Emperor, 13, 14

Heristal, 81, 82

Herod, King, 193

Hexabulius, Imperial official, 64

Hiung-nu, 4

Hohenstaufen, family of, 258

Hungary, Hungarians, 50, 233, 270, 281. See Magyars

— , Princess of, wife of Gabriel-Radomir, 233-4, 257

Hunno, Alexius, the sampses, 288

Huns, 4-16, 22, 135, 261, 281

 

I.

Iberians, 8

Ibn-Foszlan, writer, 18

Ibrahim-ibn-Yakub, writer, 186, 198

Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople, deposed, 99; reinstated, 112-14; biography, 268, 291; 117, 118

— , biographer, 268

Igor, Grand Prince of Russia, 186, 209

Illyricum, 101, 112, 117, 173, 283

India, 197

Ioannupolis, name for Preslav, 210

Irene, Saint, Empress, peaceful policy, 47-50; 43, 52, 59

— , Ducaena, Empress, 258

— of Larissa, Tsaritsa, 222, 233-4, 244

— , Lecapena, Tsaritsa. See Maria.

Irenupolis, name for Berrhoea, 47

Irnik, Khan, is Ernach, 279-81; dates, 273-7; II

Iron Gate, pass in Stranya Planina, 90

— of the Danube, 238

Isaac I, Comnenus, Emperor, 257

Isbules, Kavkan, 84-5, 88, 94, 284, 287, 293, 295-7

Isernia, 21

Isker, River, 27

Isperikh. See Asperuch.

Italy, 112, 130, 150, 159, 198

Ivatza, Bulgar general, 246, 250-1

 

J.

Jacob, Bulgar prince, 133

Japheth, 11, 281

Jeremiah. See Bogomil Jerusalem, 99

Joachim, Saint, 192

John the Evangelist, Saint, 192

— of Rila, Saint, 189, 204

— I, Tzimisces, Emperor, Bulgar wars, 206-16; death, 218- 19; 221, 267

— VIII, Pope, 116-21, 125

— X, Pope, 174, 288

— , Patriarch of Bulgaria. See David.

— , Bulgar prince, 177, 188

— , Bishop of Nikiou, writer, 13, 275

— of Antioch, writer, 7

— , Bulgar ambassador, 168

— the Chaldee, 249

— the Exarch, writer, 139, 141-2, 197

— Geometrus, poet, 222—3, 225

— the Presbyter, Papal legate, 118-19

— -Vladislav, Tsar, reign, 244-9; death, 248-9; 231, 257

Jordanes, writer, 270

Joseph, Paracoemomenus, 215

Julian the Apostate, Emperor, 129

Justin II, Emperor, 286

Justinian I, Emperor, 6, 8-9, 22

— II, Rhinotmetus, Emperor, 30, 31, 34, 261

 

K.

Kadi-Keui, inscription, 58

Kama, River, 18, 81

Kardam, Khan, reign, 48-50; 51, 52, 61, 258

Karnobad, 36

Khazars, 17, 18, 30, 281

Khrabr, writer, 139, 197, 271, 299

Kiev, 202, 205, 214

Kocel, Moravian prince, 115

Kormisosh, Khan, reign, 35-7; 33, 39, 59, 273, 277, 289

Kosara, Bulgar princess, Princess of Dioclea, 233, 245, 251

Kouria, Petcheneg chieftain, 214

Kozma, writer, 191, 196-7, 271

Kraina, 245

Krakra, Bulgar general, 238, 240, 246, 247, 248-9

Krum, Khan, reign, 51-70; wars, 525-6, 291-2; legislation, 68-70; death, 68; 71, 72, 74, 76, 79, 80, 89, 90, 94, 130, 170, 214, 258, 261, 266, 295; family of, 215, 216,231,238

Kuber, Bulgar chieftain, 20

Kubiares family, 83

 

 

331

 

Kubrat (Kurt), Khan, reign, 13-16; dates, 273-7; sons, 3, 4, 17-19; 10, 11, 50, 51, 81, 261

Kuphis (Kuban), River, 12

Kurson, Magyar chieftain, 145

Kurt. See Kubrat.

Kutmichevtsa, 128

 

L.

Lampsacus, 164

Languedoc, 196

Larissa, captured by Samuel, 221-2; 224, 231, 233, 235, 251

Laurentius, disciple of Methodius, 125

Leo III, the Isaurian, Emperor, 33, 35, 101

— IV, Emperor, 43

— V, the Armenian, Emperor, campaigns in Bulgaria, 62-8, 290-2; makes peace, 72-4; 266

— VI, the Wise, Emperor, at war with Symeon, 145-9; matrimonial troubles, 153-5; writings, 282; 126, 135, 302

— Diaconus, writer, 225, 267, 303-5

— Grammaticus, writer, 267

— Magister. See Chaerosphactus.

— of Tripoli, pirate, 151, 167

Leontius, Patriarch of Bulgaria, 164, 174, 181-2

Liplyan, 249

Lithosoria, 41

Little Scythia, 12, 279

Liudevit, Prince of Croatia, 82

Liudprand, Bishop of Cremona, ambassador and writer, 197-8, 202, 270-1, 301, 304-5

Logothete, the, unknown historian, 267, 293

Lombardy, Lombards, 21, 196

Long Walls, the, in Thrace, 36

Longus, castle, 247

Lothair II, King of Lorraine, 100

Louis I, the Pious, Emperor, 67-8, 81-3

— II, Emperor, 99

— III, of Provence, Emperor, 300

— II, the German, King of Germany, 83, 87, 91, 97, 98, 102, 108, 109

Luke the Less, Saint, 159, 268

— the Stylite, Saint, 147

Lupus, Protospatharius, chronicler, 270

 

M.

Macedonia, Slavs in, 21, 24; Bulgar settlements in, 87-9, 93; territory ceded to Bulgars, 104, 180; Clement in, 127-8, 135-6, 138; Bulgar aggression in, 151-2; centre of Samuel’s Empire, 216-52, passim; Macedonian exiles from Adrianople, 85-6; 53, 55, 62, 70, 261, 282

Machelm, German ambassador, 82

Macrolivada, 72-3, 288

Madalbert, Papal legate, 173, 174, 176

Madara, 79

Magotinus, Bulgar ambassador, 287

Magyars, raid Bulgaria, 145-7, 153, 185-6; settle in Pannonia, 149-51; 18, 81, 86, 152, 160, 167, 178, 184, 201, 205, 233, 270, 304-5; see Hungary

Mainz, 91

Malacenus, Protospatharius, 234

Malalas, John, historian, 139, 265

Malamir, Khan, reign, 84-90; and Presiam, 292-7; 71, 92, 94, 287

Manassas, chronicler, 267

Mani, heresiarch, 191

Manuel, Archbishop of Adrianople, 65, 71, 79

Manzikert, 257

Marcellae, 36, 48, 55, 56

Marcianopolis, 143, 282

Margum, 5, 135

Maria, Princess of Bulgaria, wife of Boris I, 133

— (Irene), Lecapena, Tsaritsa, marriage 178-82; influence, 187, 197; death, 198, 304-5; 142, 156, 184, 191, 199, 204, 302

— , Tsaritsa, wife of John-Vladislav, 249, 251

— , Bulgar princess, wife of Andronicus Ducas, 258

Marinus, Pope, legate in Bulgaria, 113; in Constantinople, 120; 121, 122-3, 125

Maritsa, River, 33, 73, 224, 236

Marmaëm, Bulgar general, 162, 175

Marmora, Sea of, 156

Martin, Bulgar ambassador, 108

Martina, Empress, 13, 16

Mary, the Virgin, 190, 192, 212, 252

— the New, Saint, 268

 

 

332

 

Matrucium, 242

Maurice, Emperor, 23

Mehdia, 168

Meleona frontier, 32, 59, 70, 289-90

Melissenus, Leo, Magister, 224-5

Melitene, 35

Melnik, 238, 242

Menander Protector, writer, 265

Menicus, 287

Mesembria, captured by Krum, 60-1, 68; Leo V’s campaign near, 66, 290-2; rebuilt by Emperor, 73-4; conference at, 178, 180; 3, 31, 39, 40, 59, 160-1, 172, 282

Methodius, Saint, brother of Cyril, with Cyril, 101, 115-6; returns to Moravia, 123; death, 124-5; 138, 261, 268, 271, 283

Methodius, Greek artist, 102-3

Michael I, Rhangabe, Emperor, 57, 58-62

— II, the Amorian, Emperor, 75, 85

— III, the Drunkard, Emperor, 101, 103, 104, 112, 302

— , Prince of Bulgaria. See Boris

— , Prince of Zachlumia, 162

— , Bulgar prince, 177, 188

— , Bishop of Devol, copyist, 267

— the Bogomil, 194

— , son of Moroleon, Imperial general, 165

Miroslava, Bulgar princess, 232, 239-40

Moesia, 4, 282

Moglena, 219, 220, 243-4

Moimir, Prince of Moravia, 96-7

Moldavia, 51, 150

Moliscus, 247

Monastir. See Bitolia

Mongols, 18

Monophysite heretics, 192

Monothelite controversy, 26

Montfort, Simon de, 196

Morava, River, 5, 87, 135, 237

Moravia, Moravians; become powerful, 96-7; conversion, 98, 101-2, 271; Slavonic liturgy in, 115-17, 124-5; Slavonic alphabet in, 298-9; falls before Magyars, 149; 24, 51, 95, 103, 133, 140

Moroleon, Imperial general, 165, 166

Morovisd, 249

Moses, Comitopulus, 217, 218

Mosynopolis, 235, 242, 243, 246, 249

Mugel, Prince of Crimean Huns, 8

Mundo, Hunnic brigand, 5, 6

Mundraga, 146

Muntimer, Serbian prince, 92-3

 

N.

Nahum, Saint, disciple of Methodius, comes to Bulgaria, 125-6; at Preslav, 135-6; goes to Macedonia, 138; dies, 152; biography, 271; 220

Naïssus (Nish), 95, 144

‘Nestor,’ chronicler, 271, 278, 303-5

Nestorians, heretics, 99

Nestoritsa, Bulgar general, 241, 250

Nestos, River, 88

Nicaea in Thrace, 59

Nicene Creed, 119, 125

Nicephorus I, Emperor, wars with Krum, 52-7; killed, 57; 50, 58, 59

— II, Phocas, Emperor, wars with Bulgarians, 190-206, 303-5; murder of, 206; 180, 223, 267, 290

— , Patriarch of Constantinople, 61; writings, 14, 15, 16, 25, 26, 36, 265-6; biography, 268

Nicetas, Patrician, 179

— , biographer, 268

Nicholas I, Pope, quarrel with Photius, 99-101, 103; negotiations with Boris, 108-12; 115, 116, 117, 270

— , Mysticus, Patriarch of Constantinople, Regent, 155; Bulgarian policy, 155-8; letters to Symeon, 164-70; 173-4, 268; 153-4, 300-1

— , Count, father of Comitopuli, 217, 286

— , Imperial soldier, 57

Nicon Metanoeite, Saint, 229, 268

Nicopolis, 188

Niculitzes, 222, 235, 236, 251; family of, 269

Nitra, 97, 125

Noah, 12

Noble War, the, 41

North Sea, 99

 

 

333

 

O.

Ochrida, lake, 104, 128; episcopal and patriarchal see, 135-6, I38, 255; town, capital of Bulgaria, 220; buildings, 231; captured by Basil II, 245, 246, 249; 142, 152, 299

Oder, River, 97

Odessus, 282

Okorses, Zhupan, 81, 286

Old Great Bulgaria, 4, 10, 12, 13, 17, 18

Olga, Grand Princess of Russia, 201-3, 205

Omortag, Khan, reign, 71-84; peace with Leo V, 72-4, 289-90; buildings, 75-9; death, 84; 89, 93, 94, 130, 274, 283, 288, 293

Onegavon, Tarkan, 83, 286

Onglus (Oglus), 25, 28, 202

Onogunduri, Bulgar tribe, 14, 18, 280

Onoguri, Bulgar tribe, 7, 16

Opsician theme, 30

Orestes, Protospatharius, 246

Organ a, Khan, 14

Ostrovo, Lake, 104, 244; River, 236; town, 244, 247

Othrys hills, 229

Otto I, Western Emperor, 186, 198, 218

— II, Western Emperor, 180, 226

Ozum, River, 104

 

P.

Paderborn, 87

Pancrat, soothsayer, 48

Pannonia, 3, 19, 20, 50, 51, 52, 67, 68, 83, 84, 87, 150

Panteliemon, Monastery of Saint. See Patleïna

Paristrium, theme of, 255

Parthenon, 252

Passau, Bishops of, 97, 98

Patarenes, heretics, 193, 196

Patleïna, Monastery of Saint Panteliemon at, 130, 136, 137, 143, 299

Patras, 159

Patzicus, Constantine, 64

Paul, Prince of Serbia, 163, 165, 167

— , Bishop of Ancona, Papal legate, 117

— , Bishop of Polimarti, Papal legate, 112

Paul, Bishop of Populonia, Papal legate, 109, 112-13

Paulicians, heretics, 91, 107, 191-3, 217

Pegae-on-the-Bosphorus, 166

— , suburb of Constantinople, 169, 179

Peloponnese, 23, 88, 174, 229

Pentapolis of Ravenna, 3

Pernik, 238, 246, 249

Persians, 8, 23

Petchenegs, dislodge Magyars, 145, 149; negotiations with Zoe, 159-60, with Romanus I, 167; raid Bulgaria, 178, 185-6; war with Svyatoslav, 202, 214; 163, 200, 205, 211, 247

Peter, Saint, 99, 111, 118, 121-

— , Tsar, reign, 177-205; marriage, 179-81; title, 182, 301-3; external policy, 184-6; internal rule, 187; death, 204-5, 304-5; 156, J73, 219, 220, 230, 238, 259, 270

— , Prince of Serbia, 162-3

— , Bulgar ambassador, at Rome, 108, 113; at Constantinople, 113-14; 118 288

— the Bogomil, 194

Delean, Bulgar prince, 234, 257

Petrich, 244

Petrisk, 244

Peuce, island, 26

Pharsalia, 229

Phenedia, 168

Philetus, Imperial general, 47

Philip, Patriarch of Bulgaria, 219-20

Philippi, 59, 81; inscription, 293-4, 296

Philippopolis, deserted, 59, 68, 73-4, 87; annexed by Bulgars, 88; captured by Russians, 205-6; reannexed to Empire, 215, 217, 219; used as base by Basil II, 224-4, 235, 238; 75, 135, 142, 144, 193, 224, 255, 282

Philotheus, Bishop of Euchaïta, Imperial ambassador, 203, 214

Phocas, Emperor, 23

— family, 212; see also Nicephorus II, Emperor

— , Bardas, Caesar, 199

— , Bardas, rebel, 208, 226

— , Leo, Imperial general, 160-1

 

 

334

 

Phocas, Nicephorus, the elder, Imperial general, 145, 146-7, 160, 198

Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, quarrel with Pope, 99-101; letter to Boris, 106-7; deposed, 112-14; reinstated, 118, 119-20; deposed again, 126; 103, 108, 109, 115, 124, I35, 137, 261, 268

— , Macedonian saint, 227

Pindus Mountains, 92

Pitzia, Gothic general, 6

Pliska, Bulgar capital, 28, 51; captured by Nicephorus I, 53-4, 56; buildings at, 65, 76, 79, 96; rebellion in, 104-5; 37, 71, 75, 122, 136, 211, 225, 235, 272, 286

Polemarchius, Demetrius, Bulgar general, 227

Praestizisunas, Bulgar ambassador, 288

Predenecenti, Slav tribe, 82

Presiam, Bulgar prince, and Malamir, 292-7; 84, 88, 92

Preslav, Great Preslav, built, 77-8, 274; becomes capital, 136, 138-9; buildings, 141-3; taken by Magyars, 146; Patriarchal see at, 174, 181-2, 215; captured by Russians, 205, by John I, 208-10, by Samuel, 225, by Basil II, 235; 85, 96, 122, 130, 144, 151, 153, 154, 164, 172, 187, 188, 197, 219, 272, 299

— , on the Danube, Little Preslav, early settlement, 26, 96; Svyatoslav’s capital, 203, 205, 202, 215, 235, 272

Prespa, Lake, 104; town, capital, 219, 220, 222, 233; 218, 231, 242, 250-1

Pribina, Prince of Nitra, 97

Prilep, 136, 241, 243

Probatum, Provadia, 48, 59, 89, 135

Procopia, Empress, 61, 75

Procopius, historian, 6-8, 265

Prosek, 249

Prusian, Bulgar prince, 249, 250, 257

Pruth, River, 86, 145

Pyrenees Mountains, 196

Pyrrhus, Patriarch of Constantinople, 13

 

Q.

Quedlinburg, 218

 

R.

Radomir, Bulgar prince, 257

Ragusa, 162

Rase (Racka), 92

Ratimir, Prince of Croatia, 92

Ratisbon, 109, 145, 151

Ravenna, 3, 21

Rendacius, Sisinnius, Imperial ambassador, 33

Rhaedestus (Rodosto), 65, 208

Rhipsime, Countess, 217

Rhodope Mountains, 24, 34, 88, 238, 241, 247, 282

Rhodophyles, Cubicularius, 151

Richelieu, Cardinal, 69

Rila, 189,216,299

Romanus I, Lecapenus, Emperor, ascends throne, 160-1; war with Symeon, 163-8; interview with Symeon, 169-72, 259; letters, 172-3, 268; relations with Peter, 185-6, 188, 302-3; 158, 174, 177, 178-9, 186, 188, 198, 212, 300-1

— II, Emperor, 198, 302

— IV, Diogenes, Emperor, 257

— , Bulgar prince, son of Peter, eunuch, 215; escape to Bulgaria, 220-1; surrenders, 238; 200, 205, 219, 224, 230

Rome, Bulgar embassies to, 108, 112, 113, 114, 120; compared to Constantinople, 122; 50, 99, 168

Romuald, Lombard prince, 21

Rostislav, King of Moravia, embassy to Constantinople, 97-8, 101-2; 115, 116

Russia, Russians: allied to Nicephorus I, 200; invade Bulgaria, 201-3, 205-14, 304-5; 143, 167, 180, 186, 216, 226, 247, 259, 261, 271

 

S.

Sabbas, disciple of Methodius, 125

Sabbatius, monk, 72, 292

Sabin, Khan, 39-40, 276-7

Sabirs, Hunnish tribe, 7, 10

Saint Elias, castle, 243

Saint George, River, 48

Saint Mamas, palace, 64, 76; quarter, 144

Salona, 23

Samo, Slav chieftain, 24

 

 

335

 

Samuel, Comitopulus, Tsar, rise, 218; reign, 219-43; internal policy, 231; death, 242-3; 173, 217, 245, 249, 251, 256, 257, 259, 261, 270

— Alusian, Bulgar prince, 257

Sandilch, Khan of the Utigurs, 8-9

Saracens, 30, 55, 75, 145, 199; see Arabs

Saraguri, Bulgar tribe, 7

Sardica, captured by Krum, 53; recovered, 54; annexed by Bulgars, 87; 23, 34, 58, 68, 73, 74, 95, 135, 144, 189, 282; see Sofia

Sarmatians, 22

Satan, 193, 196

Save, River, 22, 52

Sclavinia, Slavonia, 30, 67

Sclerus, Bardas, rebel, 207, 219, 226, 227

— Nicetas, Patrician, 145

Scutari, Lake, 245

Scylitzes, Johannes, historian, 230, 267, 303-5

Scythians, 4, 5, 271

Selymbria, 65, 165

Sepenum, 21

Serbia, Serbs; converted, 283; Presiam invades, 87-8, 296-7; Boris invades, 92-3; Symeon’s wars with, 162-3, 165, 162-7; annexed by Bulgars, 175; revolts, 185; 24, 25, 53, 118, 151, 196, 232, 252, 293

— (Selfidje), 227, 235, 236, 252

Seres (Serrae), 218, 219, 240, 249

Sergius, Patrician, 182

Sermon, Lord of Sirmium, 252

Setaena, 247

Sevar, Khan, 35, 273, 276-7

Shchip (Ishtip), 243, 249

Shishman, 217-8

Shumla inscription, 76, 89, 294-5

Sicily, 99, 151

Sigritze, Bulgar general, 162, 175

Sinnion, Cotrigur chieftain, 8

Sirmium, 6, 116, 252

Sisinni, Saint, 193

Skopie, Uskub, 237, 238, 249

Slavonic Liturgy, 101, 115, 116, 117, 124, 125, 135-6, 139

Slavs, 22-5, and passim throughout

Sofia, Basil II attacks, 224-5, 228; 219, 235, 238, 246; see Sardica

Sondok, Bulgar official, 118, 288

Sophia, Empress, 166

Sophia, Cathedral of Saint, 154, 215

Sosk, 244, 252

Sozopolis, 172, 180

Spalato, 174, 176

Spercheus, River, battle at, 229-30; 237, 251

Stagi, 252

Stasis, Bulgar ambassador, 288

Stauracius, Emperor, 55, 57-8

— , Imperial general, 47

—, merchant, 144

Stephen V, Pope, 125

— , Porphyrogennetus, Patriarch of Constantinople, 123, 126, 135,153

— , of Amasea, Patriarch of Constantinople, 174, 179

— , King of Hungary, 233

— , Bishop of Nepi, 113

— the Bulgar, royal relative, 178, 287

— the Bogomil, 194

Stoponium, 224

Stroemer, Prince of Serbia, 92

Strongylus, fort, 43

Struma, River, 47, 88, 238, 240, 246

Strumitsa, 129, 238, 242, 246, 249

Strymon, theme of, 53; city, 59

Suidas, lexicographer, 68, 269

Suleiman Keui inscription, 72, 289

Sursubul, George, Regent of Bulgaria, 177-9, 183, 187, 287

Svatopulk I, King of Moravia, 116, 117, 149

— II (Salanus), King of Moravia, 133

Svengel, Russian general, 209-10, 212

Svinitse (Zvenitzes), Bulgar prince, 84, 90, 293

Svyatoslav, Grand Prince of Russia, 201-3, 205-14, 226

Symeon, Tsar, education, 123; accession, 137; reign, 137-77; patronizes letters and art, 138-43; first war with Empire, 144-50; marriage scheme, 156-7, 299-301; second war with Empire, 157-69; interview with Romanus I, 169-72; proclaims himself Tsar, 173-4; war with Croatia, 175-6; death,

 

 

336

 

Symeon, Tsar (continued)— 177; result of reign, 177-8, 183; 130, 134, 183, 184, 188, 189, 197, 199, 200, 215, 259, 261, 267, 268, 286, 287, 293, 302

— , brother-in-law of Tsar Symeon, 178, 286, 287

 — , the Asecretis, 151-2

Syrians, 35, 224

 

T.

Tabari, chronicler, 148

Tagma, Turkish Ambassador, 286

Taman peninsula, 6

Taridin, Count, 129, 286

Taron, theme of, 257; princely family of, 228, 249

Tarsus, 199, 303

Tcheslav, boyar, 126

Telerig, Khan, 41-3

Telets, Khan, 37-9, 273, 276, 277

Tempe, Vale of, 229

Terbunia, 233

Tervel, Khan, reign, 30-4; peace treaty with Theodosius III, 32-3, 59, 63, 70, 73, 289; dates, 273-7; 43, 58, 144, 261

Tetraxite Goths, 6, 8

Theiss, River, Bulgar frontier, 50-2, 81, 97, 149; 69, 83, 286

Theodora, Saint, Empress-Regent, 80, 90-1, 102, 292

— , Empress, wife of Romanus I, 166

Theodore, Stratilates, Saint, 212

— , Bulgar prince, 257

— , Abbot of Studium, 61, 80

— , Bulgar ambassador, 147

— , Tarkan, 152

— the Bogomil, 194

Theodoric, Ostrogothic King, 5, 6

Theodorocanus, Imperial general, 235

Theodorupolis, name for Preslav, 214-5

Theodosiopolis (Erzerum), 35, 257

Theodosius III, Emperor, 32, 33, 59, 289

— , Bishop of Nona, 120

— , Protovestiarius, 147

— of Melitene, historian, 257

Theophanes, Saint, historian, 153; works, 7, 15, 25, 26, 36-7, 42, 54, 265-6; 276, 291; Continuator of, 266-7, 291

— , Protovestarius and Paracoemomenus, 179-80

Theophano, Empress, 198, 204, 206

— , Western Empress, 180, 226

Theophilus, Emperor, 85-6, 290

Theophylact, Lecapenus, Patriarch of Constantinople, 190, I91, 195, 268

— , Archbishop of Bulgaria,

— writer, 256, 268, 293-4

— , Papal legate, 180, 226

Thermitsa, 246

Thermopylae, 9, 229, 251

Thessalonica, sieges by Slavs, 20, 23, 24; trade-route to, 95; Bulgar trade diverted to, 144, 148; sack by Leo of Tripoli, 151-2, 167, 269; attacked by Samuel, 228, 229; visited by Basil II, 227, 243, 246; 30, 33, 34, 87, 101, 129, 140, 159, 188, 234, 236, 238, 240, 241, 282, 298 Thessaly, 41, 221-2, 224, 236, 238, 251, 252 Thirty Years’ Peace made, 72; ended, 88; 74, 75, 78, 84-5, 87

Thomas, rebel, 75

Thrace, invaded by Telets, 38, 1 by Kardam, 48, by Krum, 61, 63, by Symeon, 145, 146, 147, 156-7, 161, 164, 166, 167, 169; Asiatic colonies in, 107, 169, 192, 217; Great Fence of, see Fence; 22, 32, 34, 37, 40, 47, 58, 88, 159, 171, 172, 206, 207, 231

Thracian Chersonese, 9

Tiberiupolis in Bithynia, 129

— in Macedonia, 128-9

Tiberius, Emperor, 31

Timok, River, 237; Timocian Slavs, 81-2

Timothy, Saint, 129

Tirnovo, 77, 260

Tirpimir, Prince of Croatia, 92

Tokt, Khan, 40

Tomislav, King of Croatia, 175-6

Tomor, Mount, 128, 250

Trajan, Emperor, 80

— , Bulgar prince, 257

— Gate of, defile, 224, 235

Tranemarisca (Turtakan), 76

Transylvania, Bulgar Empire in, 50, 51, 80, 95; lost to Magyars, 149-50

Tsepa, boyar, 84, 284, 295

Tsigat, Bulgar ambassador, 41

Tsok, boyar, 71

 

 

337

 

Tudor Doksov, son of Doks, Bulgar prince and writer, 139, 273, 275, 277

Tundzha, River, 40

Turanians, 18

Turkestan, 261

Turks, 9-10, 15, 57, 281, 286

Tutsa, River, 77

Tzanagares family, 81

Tzeesthlav, Prince of Serbia, 175, 185

Tzimisces, Emperor. See John I

 

U.

Ugain family, 37, 273

Ukil or Vokil family, 35, 40, 273

Umar, Khan, dates, 273-7; 40, 41

Unogunduri. See Onogunduri

Uranus, Nicephorus, Imperial general, 229-30, 234, 251

Urogi, Bulgar tribe, 7

Uskub. See Skopie Utigurs, Bulgar tribe, 7-10, 279-80

Uturgur, 6

 

V.

Valens, emperor, 57

Varangian Guard, 201, 202, 247

Vardar, River, 237, 238, 246, 249

Varna, 27, 40, 41, 180, 282

Vaspurakan, 257

Vatatzes, Imperial official, 234

Venice, 125, 162, 233, 270

Verbitsa, Pass of, 57

Veregava, Pass of, 36-7, 40, 57, 91, 208

Versinicia, 49, 61-2, 75

Vestranna, Bulgar ambassador, 288

Vesuvius, Mount, 21

Vidin, 237

Vienna, 97

Vinekh, Khan, 37, 273, 277

Vishegrad. See Bosograd

Visigoths, 57

Vistula, River, 97

Vitalian, rebel, 6

Vlachs, 80, 218

Vladimir, Prince of Bulgaria, reign, 133-6; 86, 92, 145, 177, 284

— , Grand Prince of Russia, 180, 226

— , Prince of Dioclea, 232-3, 240, 245, 248

Vlastemer, Prince of Serbia, 88, 92

Vodena, 219-20, 236, 243, 248

Voiusa, River, 104, 128

Vokil family. See Ukil

Volerus, 236, 243

Volga, River, 18, 21, 81

 

W.

Wallachia, Bulgar empire in, 27, 51, 80, 150; overrun by Petchenegs, 160, 202

Wendic Mark, 19

Wiching, Bishop of Nitra, 125

 

X.

Xiphias, Nicephorus, Protospatharius, 235, 241, 243, 246, 252

 

Y.

Yachya, patriarch of Antioch, writer, 221, 269-70

 

Z.

Zabergan, king of the Cotrigurs, 9

Zacharias, Prince of Serbia, 165, 167, 175

Zachlumia, 162

Zagoria in Macedonia, 242

— in Thrace, 31, 34

Zaützes, Basileopator, 145, 147, 153

Zdeslav, Prince of Croatia, 119

Zeno, Emperor, 5

Zergobul, Bulgar ambassador, 118, 288

Zhuan-Zhuan or Zhen-Zhen, 9

Zoe, Garbopsina, Empress, marriage, 153-5; regency, 158-62; son’s marriage, 158, 300-1; 164, 168, 198

Zonaras, historian, 267

Zoroastrianism, 193

Zvenitzes. See Svinitse

 

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