S. G. B. St. Clair, and Charles A. Brophy (London: John Murray, 1869)
PREFACE - Memoranda
CHAPTER I. RAYAH VILLAGES OF BULGARIA. First aspect - The village public - An interior - The gipsy quarter - Habits of the gipsies - 'Notice to quit.'
CHAPTER II. RAYAH VILLAGES OF BULGARIA. (Continued.) The traveller's reception - Family meal -- Bulgarian features and physique - Ordinary costume - Holiday costume - Gagaous or mixed race - A hard bed - The traveller’s reckoning - Bulgarian charges - Hospitality of the Turks.
CHAPTER III. ROADS AND MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. Devious routes - Repair or go round? - Difficult locomotion - Employes classified - Mithat Pasha's road - Worse than none - A remedy suggested - Varna railroad - Postal irregularities - Telegraph clerks.
CHAPTER IV. BULGARIAN SUPERSTITIONS. Paganism and witchcraft tolerated by the Church - Feast of all Nature - Switch day - Dipping day - Bacchantes - A day of mortification for the dogs - All Souls - Feast of Constantine - Miraculous fish - Feast of serpents - Old Mother March - St. George's: why lambs are sacrificed - The Panagia - Feast of pigs - Novel sins - The Vampire - Fountain spirits - Spirit treasure-guardians - Ghosts of the Turks - Our success as exorcists - Notions of a future state.
CHAPTER V. BULGARIAN SUPERSTITIONS (Continued). - MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, &c. Witches - Herbalist and poisoner - Prescriptions for a fever - Exorcism sought from the Turkish Hodja - Strictness of morals - Family jars - Birth and infancy - A suitor and his negotiations - The betrothal - The wedding - Dances - The last fashion - Death and burial - mourners.
CHAPTER VI. BULGARIAN SONGS. Spurious literature - Bulgarian language - Deli Marko's match with the Evil One - Philip Junak's boasting - Deli Marko's performance - Joanczo Krym Pelilivanczo - Preparations for the encounter - The Czar's bear overcome - King Marko - Arrival at Philip the Magyar's - A long swim - Combat with a Lomota - The hero's return - Seferina rejected - Legends of other races compared.
CHAPTER VII. EASTERN CHRISTIANITY, AND ITS EFFECTS IN BULGARIA. Feasts and fast-days economically considered - The Bulgarian catechized - The clergy seek union with Rome - Rejected as unworthy - A curacy in Bulgaria - The rector - The parishioners - Fasting - Holy water - Extortion of the priests - Reforms suggested.
CHAPTER VIII. BRIGANDAGE IN THE BALKAN. Ignorance of consuls accounted for - The Gentleman of the Forest - Generosity - The common Highwayman - Laissez aller - The Outlaw - Justice defeated - A Dogstealer.
CHAPTER IX. ORIENTAL COMMERCE. A dishonesty which defies competition - A good stroke of business - -Cent. per cent. for the merchant, but the producer suffers - Privilege of a Greek subject - Country agents - A little usury - Rising in life - Non-Greek foreign merchants - Base is the slave that pays - A swarm of locusts.
CHAPTER X. THE REAL POSITION OF THE BULGARIAN RAYAH, HIS SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE, ETC. Taxes on Agriculture - Neglect of Manure - Ploughing - “Why grow more?" -Reaping - Six weeks' feast - Grain carried - Threshing - Vintage - Sheep Farming - Who is the injured party?
CHAPTER XI. THE EXEMPTION OF THE RAYAH FROM MILITARY SERVICE, AND ITS EFFECTS UPON THE TURK. Misconception prevailing in Europe - Original land-tenure - Alteration in consequence of so-called military reforms - Unequal burden imposed on the industry of the Turk by military service - Reform suggested.
CHAPTER XII. THE TAXES OF TURKEY. Taxes, personal and on property - Inequality of property-tax - Dime and its farming - Consequent loss to the revenue - Mode of collection, and injury to the cultivator - Pleas against reform - A land-tax suggested - Already exists in the case of vineyards - Customs - Corvee - Ex-traordinary contributions.
CHAPTER XIII. THE TENURE OF LANDED PROPERTY; THE TAPOU, THE MIRA, THE RIGHT OF FOREIGNERS TO POSSESS LAND. Registration of occupancy - Sometimes abused to the fraudulent acquisi-tion of title - Undeserved liberality of the Government - Right of pasturage - Leads to loss of production, illegal destruction of timber, and winter starvation of cattle - Probable results of a European immigration - Let the settlers bring their own merchants.
CHAPTER XIV. WHAT THE BULGARIANS WISH FOR AND WHAT THEY DO NOT WISH FOR. Writers in the pay of Russia - Too much experience of Russian promises - The Bulgarian does not wish what he is supposed to wish - Unambitious minds - Exceptions.
CHAPTER XV. TARTAR AND CIRCASSIAN IMMIGRANTS. Emigration of Crimean Tartars to Turkey - Broken promises, Russian and Turkish - Appearance and manners - Industry and care in agriculture - Circassian immigration - Bad cultivation and poverty - Cattle and horse stealing - Hospitality - Abstinence - Circassian encampment - Unselfishness - May prove useful as warriors.
CHAPTER XVI. TURKS OF THE TOWN AND TURKS OF THE COUNTRY. A Parisian education - Debut at Constantinople - A veteran - Town Turks classified - Family life - Rustic integrity - The roue sent to Coventry - Confession of fault - Education - The priest and the school-master - Energy - Ballads - Intellectual evenings - A theft rebuked.
CHAPTER XVII. RELATIVE POSITIONS OF TOWN AND COUNTRY. Constantinople and many other towns exempt from taxation - Encouragement to fraudulent commerce - Monomania a la Haussman - Favouritism towards foreigners - Stamp tax licenses and town property tax - "Improvements" at Varna.
CHAPTER XVIII. BRITISH CONSULS AND THE CONSULAR REPORTS. Gammoning a Consul - Harrowing tale - The truth discovered - Consular entourage - Consular dignity - Bullying a Pasha - The reports - Pre-liminary statements by the authors - Consular complaints from Rustchuk, Smyrna, Kustendje, Salonica, and Prevesa (South Albania) - Trial of Greek autonomy in the Sporades - Vice-Consul Dupuis (Salonica) - Reports from Aleppo, West and East Macedonia, Adrianople, Scutari, Beyrout, Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Janina - Consul-General Longworth (Belgrade) - Reports from Brussa and Trebizonde.
CHAPTER XIX. THE CAPITULATIONS. Prejudice of foreign residents - Origin of the Capitulations - Privilege of a Greek subject - Codes of law innumerable - Justice defeated - Try Turkish tribunals.
CHAPTER XX. THE POLICY OF FOREIGN POWERS IN TURKEY AND ITS EFFECTS. Russian agents - Russian ecclesiastical intrigue - Mysteries of French policy - No-policy of England - Religious equality - Attacks on the Ulema - Save me from my friends - Colonel Bobrikoffs scientific mission - A thankless task - French civilization - French intervention - The day of retribution - Educate the Rayah - Considerations of expediency - England's true policy.
CHAPTER XXI. THE ARMY AND THE MILITARY RESOURCES OF TURKEY. Born soldiers - Exploits in the last war - English generalship and commissariat at Balaklava - French uniforms - Onerous service of the militia - Organize volunteers - Expense of the militia - Requisites for volunteers and estimated expense - Christian non-combatant corps.
CHAPTER XXII. GOVERNMENT AND GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONARIES, ADMINIS-TRATION OF JUSTICE, &c. &c. Authority of the Sultan - Edict of Gul Hane - The future regenerator - Temporizing policy - Palace of the Porte - Palace of a Pasha - A mixed assemblage - The Cadis and the Medjliss.
CHAPTER XXIII. TURKISH REFORMS AND REFORMERS. Races unfit for liberty - Denationalizing reforms - Despatch of Fuad Pasha - The tax of blood - Mussulman troops and Christian officers - Extreme concessions - A village Medjliss or council - The Vilayets.
CHAPTER XXV. THE POLITICAL PARTIES OF TURKEY. Bulgarian politicians - The project of independence -The project of autonomy - Young Turkey - Old Turkey.
CHAPTER XXVI. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE BULGARIAN RAYAH AND THE TURK. The cause of humanity - Sham civilization - Bad material in the Rayah - Good material in the Turk of the country - Constantinople a school of vice - Discipline for the Rayah - Self-defence.
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