Dear Slav brothers! As a
I ask you to allow me to say a few humble words on behalf of that Slav
community or people, known as Bulgarians who inhabit a considerable
part of the
Here, in this place, above our heads and above us all, a sacred flag is waving! This is a sacred banner which after a long separation has, for the first time, thrown its light over all of us, brother Slavs; on this banner we see the portraits of the holy apostles St St Cyril and Methodius, enlighteners of all Slavs without exception. No one will be prepared to deny that this sacred banner belongs to all Slavs. It does! Nevertheless, we should not forget that our Slav enlighteners and inventors of the Slavonic script, the St St Cyril and Methodius, were born in Bulgarian or - which is just the same - Slav Macedonia; that they lived and grew up among the people whose forebears spoke the same language which the Slav enlighteners studied in depth and into which they translated the Gospel.
From their hands all the Slav peoples, including the Russians, have received the Holy Gospel in a language comparatively accessible to all the inter-related Slav peoples. They and their faithful followers planted in the great Russian land the seeds of Slav knowledge and of the sacred and true Christian faith, which is the cornerstone of all the past, present and future historical development and enlightenment of the Russian people.
Brothers! This is not the occasion, neither do I have the time to unfold the annals which have recorded the historical destiny and deeds of the Bulgarian people. Nor can I now describe to you the role which the Bulgarian people has played and is playing in the historic development of the Slav peoples, nor can I explain how it created the foundations for the development of Slavonic-Russian letters on Russian soil through the works written in Slavonic or Old Bulgarian. But I think it is my sacred duty to tell the Russian people that the whole Bulgarian people is now suffering under the unbearably heavy yoke of the Asian barbarians! Russian brothers! Surely you who are strong and powerful in mind and in body, will not forget the long-suffering Bulgarian people which for more than five centuries now has been under the hateful yoke of the ferocious and blood-thirsty Turks! (No, we shall never forget!) Surely you, on whom God has bestowed all blessings in the broad sense of the word, will extend a helping hand to the suffering Bulgarian people! (Yes, yes, we shall!) Brothers! The Bulgarian people is convinced that when the hour strikes — and that hour is not distant — the whole Russian people will hasten to its help in order to deliver the Bulgarian people from the age-long heavy yoke! ...
Here we heard the sounds of the mighty Russian language and of the Czecho-Slovak and Serbo-Croat languages. Allow me to say a few words in Bulgarian. I propose to raise a toast in Bulgarian. What a pity there is no wine! Mr. Zhinzifov was handed a glass of wine and holding it in his hand he read a poem entitled ‘A Toast,’ written by himself:
Question: What is most sacred for Man?
Answer: His faith and nationality.
Question: What is your faith?
Answer: I am a Christian.
Question: What is your nationality?
Answer: I am a Bulgarian.
Answer: Because my parents are Bulgarians and I speak Bulgarian.
Question: Cannot man change his faith and nationality?
Answer: There are such people who change their religion and nationality but they are committing the gravest sin and they are considered traitors by the world. They are dear to no one, everybody hates and despises them and that is why I shall never think of such things and I shall always try to help such deluded people to find the true path.
Today, after a Bulgarian school for young ladies has been established, we have the honour to see it improved and provided with a new headmaster. The Bulgarian spirit is gaining ground. The St Nedelya church is Bulgarian in the full sense of the word. The local authorities already recognize the Bulgarians as a separate community. The noblest and most influential persons in the town are the leaders of the Bulgarian population in the town; they are constantly working for the education and enlightenment of their compatriots, and they represent the people before the Turkish authorities.
Many people have said that
Being inspired with joy as I see things flourishing here, I cannot help saying a word or two of praise of these noble people who have undertaken this highly commendable and valued cause worthy of their nobleness. Their names will be inscribed in bold letters in our national history, just as the names of the brothers Robev, Dimko Radev, Todorcheto, Dr. K. Meshaikov, etc., have been.
I received your valuable letter dated 5th of this month only yesterday by the Austrian post, because it was marked ‘Poste restante' and, as my sister Slavka was very gravely ill until four days ago, since when, thank God, she has grown better, I could not go to look for the letter, neither did they bring it to me.
I was glad to read and understand the contents of this letter of yours, and today, as I have time, I am pleased to answer you.
Expressing the deepest gratitude of the people, I thank you for the joyful news you are sending me about the efforts you have made in order that a letter of gratitude be signed by our compatriots there, too, addressed to His Royal Majesty, our just sovereign and master, beloved by the people, Sultan Abdul Aziz, about the draft of the Honourable Government regarding the solution of our national Church question. I wish you could also give me joy through the accomplishment of this undertaking. However, I can assure you that it will be far from what you think, not unsatisfactory but extremely fruitful. As for how much praise of men and heavenly reward will be given to such pious undertakings, I am confident that, of this, you have no doubts.
I am happy to learn that your description of the lands is ready, and that only the districts of Salonica and Ber are missing. I am ready to send you information about the former, because I have not yet been able to find the description of the second district. Because of moving my various notes around many times, I cannot yet remember where I have put it. But one of these days I shall specially shake out all my books in the hope of finding it, and also the one about Pazar, but I fear that it has been lost, having fallen into the hands of those, who broke into my office in 1863. If I do not find it, however, it is not difficult to provide a new description of both districts. Do not worry about this.
You have been erroneously informed, that I have already become engaged to a virtuious maiden. If I remain of the same opinion till the end of my life, rest assured that I shall never, for any reason, become engaged either to a maiden or to a woman, because, as I know that even the Devil himself cannot serve women, how could I possibly do this! The truth is that I made an arrangement with one maiden, and God knows what will come out of it. Her mother is pure Bulgarian from your Volovishta and on her father's side she is half-Bulgarian but Hellenized. I have an explicit written agreement; if she learns written and spoken Bulgarian, she will be my betrothed, and only when she proves in practice that she has indeed renounced the Greek nationality, and has joined the Bulgarian community, only then will she be wedded to me to be my Bulgarian wife for life, in compliance with the rules and requirements of the interests of the Bulgarian nationality, without any right whatever on our children, without her relatives having any rights on her or on her possessions. Now she shows a great desire to join the Bulgarian community; she has already learnt to read and write in Bulgarian; she has got as far as the pronouns in her studies and has now started to translate a little from Bulgarian into Greek. It is surprising! For she has learnt by heart the diminutive and flattering adjectives and verbs. And so I shall convey to her the good wishes of yourself and of your family only when she is worthy of them, as a Bulgarian. The other week another similar arrangement was made by a zealous Bulgarian with a Bulgarian girl completely Hellenized up to now, on the same conditions.
I cannot send you today
asked of me in the previous letter, because I am writing from the home
betrothed, Evka, who greets you and your family. As far as I am
Hilferding has gone to
Please, accept and convey to all your family, each one personally, greetings and good wishes for the New Year from me and my whole family.
My dear Drinov,
I should have written to
couple of words long ago, but our wretched Slav laziness did not allow
discharge this duty; incidentally, you should also know that every
single day I
work unceasingly from 7 in the morning till 5 in the afternoon. I learnt from your letter to
Bonchev, and even earlier
from your announcement in Makedonia1 that you have
two Bulgarian books for publication. You must be praised for it! I
wish, I very
much wish, to have one copy of each and I impatiently look forward to
them. I also wish, my dear Drinov, to give away as presents several
your book, which will soon come out in Macedonia; so, on my behalf,
trouble to send (will you publish the names of the contributors) 15 copies as follows: 4 books to the Bulgarian
school in Veles; 4 books to the Bulgarian school in
Prilep, 4 books to the Bulgarian school in
Bitola where my old father is teaching, and another 4 books to the Bulgarian school in Kroushevo (not
far from Bitola). I am
sure that you will do it. In your letter (which I will expect at any
will tell me the price of these 15 copies and in what
manner I should send you the money: shall I send it by post, only it
be in gold but in notes of credit, or do you wish me to hand it to
when he passes through Prague he will give it to you personally. I
to address my copies, as well as those you intend to send to
If you want news, there is plenty, but I'll leave it for later because now I am tired as a donkey loaded with wood, coming home from the forest. The school holidays will be upon us in two weeks' time and then I shall have leisure to write you a long and detailed letter, after I have no doubt received your answer. Take care of yourself!
In my last report from this city I told you something about the attempts of Serbian propaganda to make Serbs of the Bulgarians in West Bulgaria -Macedonia, and of the Bulgarians near the frontiers of Serbia; I also reported that this germ has not affected the heads of all the Serbs, and that most of the younger people are free of this sin, because they know the situation in their country and its attitude towards neighbouring peoples, and in confirmation of this I send you the following reliable facts received from a young Serb, a man of excellent reputation and proven honesty.
‘Recently I was called by
Milojevic,1’ says he, 'who took me to a house and
children to me whom I had to teach (these children are from Kroushevo,
Then Milojevic began to discuss the fee for the lessons and stipulated that in a short time they should forget every word of Bulgarian and that I should cultivate in them hatred towards the Bulgarians, because they would later serve as active tools for our aim - to convert all the people of Macedonia into Serbs. When I saw what Milojevic wanted from me, which was something contrary to humanity and my character, and something which would create discord between Serbs and Bulgarians, I refused to undertake such a Jesuit's job and I left him/
Let those who insist that what you have heard from a friend of yours about Veles and Sima is not true, let them, I say, tell you that this case, too, is not true, and it will not be long before I show them both the house and the man. This is all for the present and, if there are other things, I shall inform you in due time.
1 Milojevic (1840-1907), an extreme Serbian chauvinist
Dear Drinov! I hasten to write to you a few words in response
to your latest letter,
whereby you tell me that both your books have already been published.
Naturally, you have to send also 16
copies of the other
to the schools I named in my previous letter. In a word, I am a
both books. Have you collected many subscribers up till now? Don't you
some more? Here they are: on behalf of K. Bonev, send ten copies of
to Turnovo and Elena. Also on behalf of K. Stanishev send ten copies to
Salonica and another ten to Koukoush. Do not expect any further
here! What about Peter Teodorov? Well, yes, he can answer you himself,
wants to. I shall take pains to send you the money, the cost of all
these 72 copies, if Bonchev decides to pass through
I'm impatiently awaiting
History; it is of greater interest to me. The manuscript that has
forwarded has not yet reached Popov. I must tell you that one of the
I've translated the greater part of Shevchenko's works into Bulgarian and this summer I intend to translate almost all of them, except his prose articles. I have already written a detailed biography of the Miladinov brothers, as well as some other small things. I do not know what to do with them, because I am not inclined to publish them, for as the proverb goes, 'once bitten, twice shy.' It would be the saddest thing (God forbid), if your books were not to cover their publishing cost. In fact, there is hope, because your books are quite different in nature from mine.
Take care of yourself!
Document No 104, April 1, 1869
Since we have not received a letter from you lately we deem it necessary to inform you about the following:
From other people we learn
have sent us several numbers of the newspaper Pravo, together
letter, but we have not received them as yet and that is why we beg you
send letters by chance people because they don't reach us. It is true
have not written to you lately, to inform you about .the girl's
We are pleased to inform you that we have also become members of the Bulgarian nation because it was determined by the Commission in Constantinople, headed by His Highness Ali Pasha, that, together with the villages around Melnik and the Northern part of the region, we are under the protection of the Bulgarian bishop in Nevrokop, being ourselves Bulgarians. Thank God we have received what we desired, and we are now expecting only a firman from our august king and father - Sultan Abdul Aziz.
We send you our sincere best wishes and remain your faithful brethren — the Bulgarian Commune of Nevrokop.Iliya Doukov
newspaper where L.
Our information from this town concerns Father Agapi, who opened a Bulgarian school in Voden not very long ago. But the malice of the Phanariots did not allow the school to function in peace, because they immediately slandered the teacher before the authorities in Voden, who in their ignorance sent the arrested Father Agapi with bound hands to Salonica where His Highness Sabri Pasha ordered his release as being innocent. We are assured that the teacher will receive all the necessary guarantees from the authorities, so that he may work peacefully and safely for the cause of education in this so far completely neglected, purely Bulgarian town, where the citizens after vainly attempting to defend him and secure his release from the local authorities accompanied him with tears in their eyes even beyond the town, and later thirty people went with him to Salonica.
We are informed that some malicious people are spreading false rumours to discredit Father Agapi. But the teacher of Voden is well-known in our town and so far his reputation among our citizens has been spotless. This is the reason why we are warning our compatriots not to lend an ear to such rumours which are entirely groundless and which are being spread purposefully by ill-wishers.
In response to your letter of September 26, 1869, No. 4,464 regarding the supply of information for the Committee on the activity of Western propaganda agencies, on any charity establishments organized in the region of the Bitola Consulate, as well as on public education, I have the honour to inform you that in the region of the Consulate entrusted to me, there is only one Lazarite school in the town of Bitola, which was opened 15 years ago headed by the Abbot Le Paveque.
And yet, during all this
time, Catholic propaganda has not scored particular successes, in
spite of the
fact that using different methods, Le Paveque had succeeded in v/inning
the Uniate several poor Bulgarian families from the regions of Veles
Tikvesh, but last year they all returned to the Eastern Orthodox
while their children, who studied in the Lazarite school in Bitola,
left it and
returned to their parents. As a result, Le Paveque was recalled to
Abbot Cassani, appointed in his place, has for the time being
actions to expressing readiness to give lessons in French only to those
children whose parents agree to pay him 30 (talers) a month. On
this condition, five children of
Twice has Protestant
tried to gain ground in
Regarding the education, I
it my duty to inform you that due to lack of funds for its development,
progress is very slow. Until very recently, little attention was paid
national education. With the exception of the regions of Prilep, Veles,
and Kurchovo, church services and teaching in the schools were
in Greek, and a large number of the Bulgarians wrote in their mother
using Greek letters. Church services in the Slav languages recently
There are nowhere schools in the villages, and only the village priests, who, in their overwhelming majority, know how to read and write, teach the letters to the village children.
In general, both types of schools - the boys' as well as the girls' schools, could be said to need trained school masters and school mistresses.
We are submitting our present petition to your Excellency for the first time, daring to address you with filial respect, as children address their father, to greet you and inquire after your precious health (let God give you long life and good health), to kiss your strong hand with sincere reverence and, in short, to describe our needs. We do not doubt and we are fully confident that you will satisfy them perfectly and bring them to a happy conclusion in time.
So, encouraged by our compatriot, Mr. Spass Iliev, who is a member of our community, to address a petition to Your Excellency to ask for assistance and support for our nationality all over Macedonia, we express our heartfelt and sincere gratitude for the sympathy you feel for us, your dear brothers of blood kinship, and for your wisest parental counsel, oh, you dearest protector and patron! Therefore, kneeling, we beg for your powerful protection and assistance, that you may be the instrument that will save such a numerous Bulgarian Macedonian people from Greek perfidy and attacks.
Protector! We are making efforts, but we have no funds; we have the desire but we do not have the weapons, and therefore we beseech Your Excellency to help supply us with the things we lack so badly now. For instance, in our town we have two churches: Dormition of the Holy Virgin and The Holy Archangel Michael, but we have only one set of religious books. We leave it to you to realize how difficult it is to hold church services. We have no church vestments at all, we would like to install a bell, because bells have been installed in all the surrounding places, but we have no funds. We have a school, but it is inadequate in terms of a syllabus. We beseech Your Excellency to make efforts and present all those things to your co-religionists, and we shall glorify, honour and remember your illustrious name for ever and ever.
We cherish the hope and we submit to your wishes.
Your most obedient servants, the Bulgarian commune of Nevrokop1.
petition is signed
by Priest Konstantin, Iliya Doukov, Stoyan Dimitri, Spass Iliev, Iliya
Georgi Kostov, Nikola G. Mandoushev, Ivan Anastassov, Nedelcho Hristov,
Ivanov, Yovan Georgiev, and another four whose names are not legible
But in spite of all this we observed with regret the disputes and controversies which contrary to our good will, have lately arisen between the Bulgarians of the Orthodox faith and the Greek Patriarchate, i.e. concerning the relations between the Bulgarian archbishops, bishops, priests, the Bulgarian Church and the Patriarchate.
The following articles, the result of many discussions and much thought about the best solution of the difficult problem were formulated as follows:
1) A special spiritual jurisdiction shall be established under the name of Bulgarian Exarchate, which will include the below mentioned archbishoprics, bishoprics, and others; the Exarchate shall be authorized to manage all the church affairs of this religious faith.
2) The highest rank of the archbishops in this jurisdiction shall be the title of Exarch, and the Exarch shall be the canonical head of the Bulgarian Synod, whose permanent seat shall be close to the Exarch.
3) The internal spiritual management of this Exarchate shall be subordinated to the sanctions and approbation of our Sublime Porte; it shall be regulated by a special Statute, which must be in conformity, under all circumstances, with the basic canons of the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as with the principles of the Orthodox faith. The Statute shall be worked out in such a way that it will not allow the direct or indirect intervention of the Patriarchate in spiritual affairs, especially in the election of bishops and of the Exarch.
Immediately after the election of the Exarch, the Bulgarian Synod shall inform the Patriarchate, and the latter shall as soon as possible issue all the necessary letters of confirmation, required by the Orthodox rites.
4) This Exarch, appointed by our Royal Decree, must mention in the liturgy, according to the canons of the Church, the name of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Before any steps are taken, according to the instructions of the faith, for the election of a person worthy of the rank of Exarch, the opinion and the approval of my Government shall be asked.
5) In all matters the solution of which (according to the existing laws) depends on him and which are concerned with places under his spiritual dominion, the Exarch may address the local authorities directly and if need be, our Sublime Porte; the decrees given to the clergy depending on him will be issued at his request.
6) In all matters concerning the Orthodox faith and requiring joint discussion and collaboration, the Synod of the Exarchate shall apply to the Oecumen-cial Patriarch and his Synod and they shall hasten to give their support or to send the necessary answers.
7) The Synod of the Bulgarian Exarchate shall ask the Patriarchate of Constantinople for the chrism used in churches.
8) The bishops, the archbishops and the prelates subordinated to the Patriarchate of Constantinople shall freely pass through the territory subordinated to the Bulgarian Exarchate; the same refers to the Bulgarian bishops, archbishops and prelates in the bishoprics of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. They shall be free to go to the main towns of the district or to any other places where the local authorities are. But they shall have no right to convene their Synods outside their spiritual jurisdiction; they shall not interfere with the affairs of the Christians, who are not under their spiritual authority and they shall not conduct holy services in any other place of sojourn, without the permission of the local bishop.
9) As the Convent of Jerusalem in the Phanar suburb of Constantinople depends on the Patriarchate of Jerusalem and is under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, so the Bulgarian convent, situated also there, together with the Bulgarian church, shall depend on the Bulgarian Exarchate.
The Exarch has the right to
this convent whenever his affairs require his presence in
10) The spiritual jurisdiction of the Bulgarian Exarchate shall include the bishoprics of Rousse, Silistra, Shoumen, Turnovo, Sofia, Vratsa, Lovech, Vidin, Nis, Pirot, Kyustendil, Samokov, Veles, Varna (with the exception of the town of Varna and about 20 villages on the Black Sea coast up to Constanta whose population is not Bulgarian), the district of Sliven without the towns of Anhialo and Mesemvria; the county of Sozopol without the villages along the coast, the bishopric of Plovdiv without the city of Plovdiv, the town of Stanimaka and the villages of Kouklen, Voden, Arnaoutkyoy, Panagia, Novo Selo, Lyaskovo, Alhan, Bachkovo, Belashtitsa, and the monasteries of Bachkovo, St Bezsreburnitsi, St Paraskeva and St Georgi.
The quarter of the
Virgin Mary in the city of
If all, or at least two thirds of the Orthodox Christian population in other places, besides those enumerated above, are willing to accept the supremacy of the Bulgarian Exarchate in religious matters and, if this is duly proved, they will be allowed to do so, but this shall happen only by the will and with agreement of all or, at least, two thirds of the population. Those, who try by these means to create trouble and disturbances among the population, will be persecuted and punished according to the law.
11) The rules which, according to the canons, govern the position of the monasteries dependent on the Patriarchate but situated on the territory of the Bulgarian Exarchate, must be kept and observed as before.
Since the above-mentioned regulations were found sufficient to satisfy the lawful demands of the population and to put an end to the unfortunate discords, our Government approved them; they shall in future be respected as laws and the present firman was issued to make it known that our definite will is that they shall not be violated and there shall be no departure from them.
I have safely received the 45 ducats.
I learned from a reliable
that from St Demetrius Day up till now no movement of military
been observed along the line between Salonica,
According to the assurances
merchants, all the troops concentrated along the frontiers with your
Today I was informed by a
man that from St Demetrius Day onwards about ten suspicious strangers
Russian, Italian and German passports have been seen in the area of
Nevrokop. My friend told me that these strangers were Bulgarian,
Wallachian by nationality. He managed to learn the name of only one of
them - 'Bandiera'. They all try to pass as
merchants, but they buy nothing and
only wander from village to village. The contradictory explanations
have given about their activities so far have made the local
suspicious of them, and the head of the police in Nevrokop has received
secret instruction from the local pasha to watch them carefully at
One of them — with a Russian passport but born in
the district of Nevrokop - came to Seres but the
Turks arrested him and interrogated him from morning till night,
learn the reason for his arrival here. The man who told me about them
me that the local people considered them to be secret emissaries
Bulgarian Committee in Wallachia and were afraid that the strangers
organize a revolt in this area at the beginning of spring like the
The day before yesterday a
How dare you, gentlemen, forsake your fathers' names, despise your mothers' milk, and will you not feel them weighing like a heavy burden on your hearts, even after you have forsworn them?
There is nothing in the world more despicable than a self-deceiving man. Don't deceive yourselves and don't hinder your brothers - the peasants, who with great eagerness and deep feeling of reverence are willing to listen to the words of God in their own mother tongue. Look, they have already started opening schools, where they are taught mostly in Bulgarian.
Here in the district of
are already more than 20 villages which have
purged their schools and churches of the pernicious Greek language. The
What about Melnik? The village of Levovo there, together with 9 other villages, insist that their own language be introduced. They started collecting signatures and appointed one of the notables of Levovo - Mr. Theodore - as their representative to go either to Seres or to Salonica to ask for permission from the officials for the establishment of Bulgarian schools in their villages When the Bishop of Melnik was informed about that, he denounced them to the local Turkish authorities as rebels. The Turkish Governor considered it his duty to send for Theodore and investigate the case, but, while the zaptiehs were bringing him to Seres, the bishop managed to arrange things in such a way that the poor slandered man was immediately imprisoned without any hearing or sentence, and 24 hours later he was sent under guard to Seres, where he is still in prison. But note, that he was brought to Seres on foot and they did not allow him to take any clothes. When he was first brought to Melnik, the Governor told him that, had he known beforehand about the collection of signatures, he would have gone and shot him on the spot. In Nevrokop the Governor compelled the Bulgarians to appoint their representatives for the Synod of the Patriarchate, as we were told by the representative from this town who had come here this morning to complain to the officials.
The Governor of Seres released Theodore from Levovo but, as we have heard, he did not rebuke either the Governor of Melnik or the bishop for their illegal proceedings.
We have received a report from Voden about the publication of the following document concerning the establishment of a Bulgarian commune in this town:
Record of proceedings at the session of the commune and the church wardens confirming the unanimity of our population.
We, the undersigned citizens of Voden, of the Eastern Orthodox faith, of Bulgarian origin, and loyal subjects of His Imperial Majesty Sultan Abdul Aziz, our benevolent father and Lord, who had lately bestowed on us his most magnanimous and long-awaited royal mercy, for which we are profoundly grateful, and we pray to God for the prosperity and long life of his kingdom, we, unanimously and in concord, relying on the royal firman and the laws of our country, duly and legally appointed the members of our people's commune and our church warden whom we authorized with the seal of the commune to work and act on our behalf and to represent us whenever necessary before the honourable Government and to be our mouthpiece. The members have three obligations:
1) As pure Bulgarians, we do not recognize the Greek Patriarchate and its bishops and authorize them to bring us a bishop from our national Bulgarian Church.
2) In our schools we want our native Bulgarian language to be the principal one in the education of our children, then Turkish, and, after it, any other language if there be time, desire and need.
3) In our churches we want to hear the services and the word of God in our own language, like our brother Bulgarians throughout the Empire. For this reason, we authorize our church commune to work out a Statute and a list of regulations as basis for its activities, according to the existing laws of the Government, and that this commune represent our citizens everywhere and keep a regular record of all its proceedings in a special record-book, duly signed and sealed, while the decisions of the board will be accepted by us as valid for everybody. Also:
We bind ourselves by our own free will to assist and support them by word, deed and a helping hand, whenever it is necessary, and all the above-mentioned points we confirm by our own signatures.
As for Mr. G. Toshev's work, he himself will inform you, that we, like him, would like to have you here; as for Mr. Georgi Chyangov, he is in Port Said in Egypt, and his mother went to fetch him, but we do not know for sure when he would be back. We have not at all forgotten your melifluous conversation with us held the year before last, and have even been diligently spreading it, and it has so much strengthened and struck deep root, that all over the diocese the idea is greatly thriving, and it itself is the source of our national feeling and consciousness: we give thousands upon thousands of grateful prayers to the Lord above, who has distinguished us with a priest of our own people as worthy as you, who have been selflessly roaming becoming a willing victim to the development of your deeply sleeping homeland, which, however, is now in a perfect position to recognize and appreciate its benefactor; it only is sorry that it looks at him from afar! Holy father, the hour has struck! All obstacles have been eliminated! We uprooted Nikodim and did everything possible so that the new bishop would not receive a mandate and await the hour when we would chase him away... There is nothing to fear! Enough foreign oppression! Come and get some rest from your hard labours in our wide open hearts; yes, Father, wide open hearts, and there is no pen capable of describing our ardent desire to have you here. Fulfil this desire of ours! As we brought in a capable teacher in Slav-Bulgarian, Greek, Turkish and French, almost the whole town, with the exception of a few people who are still deluded and who mourn and bewail waning Hellenism, came and embraced their natural and literary mother tongue; and after we had written down the houses in the chronicle, we elected and organized a commune and inspectors, whom, by a public seal, we empowered to represent the people everywhere.
when we were about to expel Nikodim, we learnt that the Greek
sending, without asking our opinion, another one in Nikodim's place;
we telegraphed to the Great Vizir that our diocese, being inhabited by
Bulgarians, according to the Sultan's firman, does not recognize the
patriarchate, nor the bishop it is sending us without asking us, but
want a Bulgarian bishop from the Bulgarian Church. The Sultan's Vizir
us that we, as a diocese, had to present a petition and then our wish
fulfilled, therefore we set out openly round the diocese for seals,
then we shall
go to announce this, so as to be able to join our people's
So, we humbly and filially beseech you, holy father, not to refuse us with any excuse or disregard our wish. Let us know your decision an hour ahead by a telegram from Veles, or anywhere else, addressed to Icho Dimitriev Sanezh and Georgi Gogouv, and we shall promptly send people to meet you...
So, begging you to agree and to send us one or two of the school mistresses in Veles, we remain, respectfully and filially kissing in our minds you holy paternal hand...
Your obedient spiritual children. Members of the Bulgarian commune in Voden.
Holy Shepherds and Fathers!
After expressing our great respect and prayers for your prayers and blessing, we desire to submit our humble letter to the attention of your worships and express the great joy and satisfaction which has filled our hearts ever since we learned from the dispatches to our neighbouring towns and from the national newspapers that His Imperial Majesty, our merciful tsar, Sultan Abdul Aziz, Khan, guided by justice and fatherly concern for the Bulgarian people, has deigned to issue a high firman for the final solution of our church problem and the recognition of an independent Bulgarian church and national hierarchy under the official name of the Bulgarian Exarchate.
After thanking God for his gracious mercy in freeing our people and our Church from the foreign and alien clergy, immediately after the church service on Annunciation Day, we gave voice to our warm, unanimous prayers and heartfelt thanks to the Almighty Creator for the long life and health of his Imperial Majesty, our tsar, Sultan Abdul Aziz, our Lord, who was so kind as to confer so great a bounty upon his loyal Bulgarian subjects.
But although, like true Bulgarians, it was our greatest desire to see the final solution of the Bulgarian church problem and the recognition of our independent Church, - we were prevented by the enemy of our people, the Phanariot Ieroteus1 and his supporter priest Petros from expressing freely in a letter our eager desire to the glorious Government of our kind tsar - Sultan Aziz as was done by other Bulgarian bishoprics.
So now, after the final solution of the problem, when all fears have vanished from our hearts, fears caused by the threats and intrigues of the Greeks, we met at the school in Kavadartsi and Vatasha and, with the knowledge of the local authorities, wrote a prayerful petition, full of gratitude, to His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, imploring him to put under the spiritual dominion of the already recognized Bulgarian Exarchate our district of Tikvesh, which fortunately is populated only by pure Bulgarians – Orthodox Christians and Moslems. We end our petition here and humbly beg you to submit it to the Government of His Majesty.
We also implore your worships to receive the Orthodox population of Tikvesh into the bosom of our already independent Church and Exarchate and to be so kind as to instruct us by letters in matters of faith and law, and to direct our priests in the full and proper execution of their services and duties.
For this reason, we beg you to send us if possible about 150 marriage-licences through your representatives in Prilep.
Relying on your prayers and blessings we kiss your holy hands and remain forever your faithful, humble and obedient spiritual children: the parishes of Kavadartsi, Vatasha and all the citizens of Tikvesh.
Offering our respects to the Kyustendil commune, patriotism, in the present letter we hasten to ask its indulgence, if the rumour we have acted on proves to be false.
We have heard that after the end of the conflagration in Strumitsa, the Kyustendil commune, guided by its patriotism, offered to render some assistance, the size of which is unknown to us, to our poor burnt native Strumitsa.
Consequently, if this rumour should be true, we humbly ask the patriotic commune to send its voluntary aid to Mr. Tashe Ranenikov, a man specially sent on our behalf for this purpose, and to recommend him to the commune of Doupnitsa.
Thus far we have had no need to ask for aid from the patriotic communes. We awaited the time when they could help us build a Bulgarian school and a church, and now that the long awaited moment has arrived, we have decided to start building the school, but since our money is scanty, we're asking the people for aid and charity. Relying on your patriotic sentiments, we remain loyal compatriots of the Kyustendil commune, which we, the members of the Bulgarian commune in Strumitsa, highly respect.
There are four priests here, catspaws of the local Greek bishop, who, after the failure of all their efforts to re-instate themselves in our churches and parishes from whence they were driven away, finally tried to achieve their aim by violence, i.e. by forcibly conducting the service in our churches, as was the wish of their master, Bishop Paissi. But how ashamed they were when this attempt also failed, and when, what is more, it led to their being forbidden to serve in the churches and even to enter them.
They made this attempt on the 14th of September, and in particular for the rite of the consecration of water, which is a church holiday usually celebrated with great solemnity. So, the surprise of the people in the church when the four priests trying to enter together with the people's priests, with the obvious intention of reading prayers, was beyond description. It was exactly as the proverb says, 'They don't want him in the village, but he wants to live in the parsonage/ Immediately some of those present went to tell them that they should leave because their service -was not desirable, but when the people saw that they took no notice of those warnings but pursued their course, everybody present surrounded them with such obvious signs of anger and indignation that if they had not taken the hint and left the church at once, I assure you they would have been torn to pieces that very minute even within the church.
After the church service was over, all the people who were in the church, went directly to the office of the local governor and lodged a complaint against the four priests to Saffet bey, the governor, who summoned these sworn minions of Paissi at once and ordered them in most severe terms not only to refrain from reading in church against the will of the people, but also never to enter it again.
Saffet bey be praised for his prudence and wisdom in thus divining the cunning and intrigues of these villainous supporters of the bishop and ridding the people from them! Praised be our respected commune for its perseverance and prudent proceedings in crowning our endeavours with success! Praised be our judicious peasants, who did much to help during the expulsion of these despised tools of the bishop - thanks to such people as Hadji P. Alexi, Priest Ivan, the former church warden, Priest Ivan Kratovski and Priest Stoycho, whose behaviour on this occasion was most commendable! Honour and praise to all patriotic Bulgarians who struggled zealously to rid our people from the Greek-Phanariot Patriarchate, its agent Paissi and his followers! Long live such Bulgarians!
I received your honourable letter dated the 30th of last month; and thank you very much for your useful advice. I was greatly hurt by the unpleasant situation in which my kind friends, the cantor Mr. Zheko, and Mr. Hristo, your son, have found themselves, and I convey to them my cordial greetings. For your sake, I shall make efforts hoping to secure him a place as teacher. The messengers who were sent, one to Constantinople and two to Salonica, came back several days ago and brought from there a Sultan's decree; however, the kaimakam (district governor) said it was not valid and forced the inhabitants of Nevrokop and the aldermen of all villages in the county to pay the bishop's tax. He also arrested several of them for this and kept them for 2-3 hours in jail, but all inhabitants of Nevrokop gathered in the konak (town-hall) and told him: 'Either set free these people or imprison us, too, because not one of us will pay the bishop's tax,' and he let them out. The same people from there told the captain then and there in the konak, that they would kill the bishop and pay the blood money. That is why the governor had to send police to see him home and, ever since, for several days, the bishop has not dared go out, either to take a walk or on the road, but has been staying like one under house arrest, because the Bulgarians had organized their wives to stone him to death wherever they saw him.
Now they think of sending
from the district (kaza) to Seres again to send a telegram to the
The inhabitants of Dolen say that if all villages from the district pay the bishop's tax we shall pay it, too; if not, we won't either.
Now I, even after the
the Virgin, went back to my village and there found Father Makarius
Archimandrite of the Samokov diocese, inviting electorate from our
go to Samokov and there elect representatives to be sent to
I convey greetings to your whole family.
Here in the Nevrokop district, people are wondering why no representatives are sought from them and are in doubt as to whether they are not still thought to be Greeks, although they renounced the Patriarchate so long ago.
Like an honest and free Bulgarian journalist, as it is evident frofn the publications in your newspaper Svoboda, you support without discrimination every nation that shows its desire to live in liberty.
We, the Bulgarians, were
at last to have a newspaper, which freely gives the right to everyone
express the opinion of our people before the world. We too are human
we want to live as such: to be entirely free in our native land -- where Bulgarians live -• in
Dear Editor, through your newspaper, or as you think best, we want to ask our brothers-Serbs: are they ready to lend us a helping hand against our common enemy some time, or not? Let them be sincere in their answer so that we can arrange our affairs, and they - theirs in a way to prevent much bloodshed. It is shameful for us to compare our strength with such blockheads as the Turks... When my enemy is more stupid than I, he will play into my hands.
We ask: now that we want to pursue the road to justice and liberty, who can stand in our way, unless he is not willing to lend at least his voice for the good cause? I think that nobody will dare to do it.
Justice should be done to
nation and even to every man who wants to live in honesty and liberty.
the Bulgarians, have been trying for a very long time to cry out to
and liberty. The everyday murders of our people, the conversion to
Islam of our
kidnapped children, the rape of our girls and women by the Turks, have
daily lamented by us with bloody tears before the consuls of the
countries. To our voice of despair there is no answer and no help
the contrary - they assume the role of stern
tutors towards us. Where then is their boasted education and humanity?
shall we complain to them and rely on their lies forever? No, instead
tears, we are now casting bullets and our entire hope is in
1 Vassil Levski (1837-1873),
and organizer of the Bulgarian national revolution. Together with L.
he founded the Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee (BRCC)
With the present letter, we wish to complain to Your Worship of the plight of our Bulgarian school in our town, which is badly suffering, and is on the point of expiring. This illness has not been caused by any negligence on our part, but by a terrible conflagration which has exhausted all our strength and has rendered us incapable of re-building our school. Furthermore, our expenses are high and we have no sources from which to draw further strength. Consequently, as we have no choice and as we do not know what to do, we're turning to our dear fellow-Slavs whom we implore to be charitable to our school; their charity will cure our school which is cruelly suffering. We humbly ask Your Worship to make some efforts for the benefit of our suffering school. We shall never forget your kindness to our homeland.
Since now merchants who are our brothers in race, have come to Seres from different places for the fair, among whom, no doubt, there are many kind-hearted and excellent patriots, be so kind as to acquaint them with the poverty in which the conflagration has left us. Since our school is in a sorry state, please request their aid for the sake of our school, for which we and our children shall be eternally grateful to them. With the same end in view we have also written to the P. Shoulev brothers, whom we also greet through you.
Relying on your patriotic sentiments, we remain.
Courrier d'Orient1 makes a general survey of the Bulgarian dioceses which the Patriarchate considers Greek and which are not mentioned in the Firman but have the right to join the Exarchate whenever their inhabitants desire it. We have taken from this newspaper what follows below:
Debur. Two districts, 178 villages, of which 16 Albanian and all the rest -Bulgarian. The Bulgarian language is used in the churches of all the villages, both Bulgarian and Albanian.
Ohrid. Four districts, 206 villages, all Bulgarian except 6 Wallachian and one with mixed population.
Pelagonia. The diocese of
The Greeks have spread the
that the Bulgarians in
Moglena. Three districts with 130 Bulgarian villages.
Strumitsa. Three districts with 178 villages, all of them Bulgarian.
Kastoria. 304 Bulgarian villages and 16 Wallachian.
Polyana. Three districts with 105 villages - all of them Bulgarian.
Drama. Three districts. The population of the district of Nevrokop is entirely Bulgarian; the citizens of Drama and of two other counties are of mixed origin, predominantly Bulgarian.
Melnik. Three districts; all villages are Bulgarian, only the town has mixed population.
Voden. Two districts with 80 villages - all of them Bulgarian.
— a newspaper which came out in
Constantinople in French
There is a possibility of
getting in contact with the secret Bulgarian Committee. I hope to
through a certain Dimiter Petrov, an excellent merchant of
The same man showed me 2 revolutionary documents — a brochure and a letter,
at the bottom of which there was a seal with a lion and around it the
To my question as to when
would begin, he answered that he hoped it would be soon, but without
securing the consent of
I was filled with joy beyond description on hearing the news that Your Grace was already a member of the holy Synod. And because I know well both your inborn and acquired qualities, and your patriotic feelings which are a credit to you I am firmly convinced that you will contribute a great deal to the improvement of our national and church affairs which are in a very pitiful state at present. This is the reason why I write to your Grace, with fraternal sincerity to express my complaints.
You probably know that two fifths of the population of this diocese are Bulgarophones. Six months ago the panslavonic propaganda there sent a Bulgarian teacher here. After my resolute opposition to his gathering any pupils» he, being in utter despair, dared slander me in a newspaper report sent from Seres to the panslavonic organ Courrier d'Orient saying that I struck a bargain with Mr. Michael effendi and that we hired a Greek named Yanaki Djelep to kill him but that the latter, before committing the crime, had gone to a Turk named Bekir effendi and told him his intention, but the Turk had dissuaded him. Immediately after I read this report in Courrier d'Orient I summoned the said Bekir effendi and took a testimony written and signed by him in which he declared that not only Yanaki Djelep had not said such things, but that he had not even heard of such a thing from anybody else. On this occasion I wrote to His Holiness the Patriarch of Constantinople to insist that offenders gave me satisfaction. But because I got no answer to my first letter, I wrote a second one to obtain permission to address the offenders directly and demand satisfaction, but unfortunately I have received no answer yet.
There is a quarter at the
of this town called Dolna Kamenitsa. Its inhabitants, although mostly
Bulgarian-speaking, lately settled here, built a new Greek
school. And because they were not able to attend church at the
Moreover, they asked me to give them back the money they had given me for their firman. After begging them with tears in my eyes for about 3 hours, I persuaded them to wait just a few more days, but I am not sure whether they will keep their promise. So, on top of all the sorrows and troubles I have to endure from the Bulgarian-speaking villages, which are in a complete turmoil at present, owing to the panslavonic propaganda after the announcement of the schism, I now have to cope with this unpleasantness in the town itself, which is the centre not only of this diocese but of seven neighbouring districts as well.
As for the local monastery mentioned above, I have already informed the church that it is the stronghold of panslavonic propaganda here, but my warnings remained unheard. And I inform you for the last time that if the church does not take the necessary measures to curb the activities of this monastery, our people will not only lose an ancient and very rich monastery, but it will spread the contamination to all the settlements here, owing to the close connections of the monks with the local population. For a proof of this, you may ask for further information from the bishop of Drama, who narrowly escaped falling victim to his ardent zeal last Sunday.
I implore Your Grace, after reading my letter, confidentially to inform His Holiness about its contents, because, so far, I have managed to thwart the plans of the local panslavonic propaganda but in the future I beg the Church to take my letters seriously into account and give me the necessary support.
Hoping to receive a favourable answer from you, and, after inquiring about your precious health, I remain the youngest brother of your Grace in the name of Jesus Christ, and ready to execute your orders.
At the beginning of spring
year, during the visit of the last caravan here I informed you that I
The person he mentioned has
come yet. The same merchant came here again on business a few days ago
me that the reason for his not coming was as follows: after his return
merchant met the said person and told him all about me. To this, the
him not to confide in me because he had just learned from a most
source that I was the worst enemy of the Bulgarians and the sole reason
being in Seres was to lead and direct the Serbian propaganda, with the
object of persuading the Macedonian Bulgarians to change their present
Bulgarian language for the Serbian language. I was very much
surprised to hear
such a black intrigue and most solemnly declared that I had not even
such vile and villainous actions and intentions, at the very idea of
soul recoils as at the name of Hell, because, if it were so, this would
only the enemies of the Slavs, who are constantly praying: ‘Do not
Giaours, oh Lord!’ - And I said that I was all for Slav
solidarity and that time only would show how unjust these slanders
merchant told me that he had spoken to the same effect concerning my
but that he had not been able to convince them. As to the said person,
merchant informed me that, from time to time, under the guise of
business, this person travelled from the
The local pasha went to
Ten days ago, the Bulgarian community here received a letter from the Exarchate informing them that, in answer to their demand, the Chief Justice has sent telegrams to all local magistrates here forbidding any coercion on those Bulgarians who are unwilling to recognize the authority of the Greek bishop.
Your Holiness Father Abbot Jeremiah!
In the Monastery of St St Peter and Paul
Although we have been delayed, we have come kissing your hand to beg Your Reverence to excuse Father Partenius of Razlog, because, as you may have realized from our letters to the Pazardjik commune, we have kept His Reverence here for our own needs, to serve as our priest, because without him our village would have had no holy liturgy.
Hoping that Your Reverence will not take him to task for his absence from Your Monastery, but that you will appreciate his rendering us a great service, we greet you respectfully and remain faithfully yours.
In the foreword to these songs, on page 9, it says that the Serbs throughout the world are 11,750,000! Oh, these are nice figures if they were only true...
But Mr. Milojevic is in general distinguished for knowing everything to be just the opposite of what the whole world knows it to be...
Open 'Itinerary of Real Old Serbia', part I, and you will find (page 31) that Samokov is a Serbian border town...
From the ethnography of
folk-songs which we mentioned before, it is obvious that there scarcely
Bulgarians on the
It seems as though Milojevic is satisfied with that without trying to penetrate deeper, and there are even passages where he denies the fact that the Bulgarians are Slavs and sends them to join the Mongols...
This is utterly unbrotherly and unpolitic behaviour towards the nation nearest to us to the East. As if it were not enough, that this kind of attitude as well as the policy of aggression brought us under Turkish yoke during the Middle Ages, we are trying to revive the old evil through such behaviour towards the Bulgarians. It is our duty to eject from our literature every similar ignoble action.
... In other respects Milojevic's method of arguing in favour of the Serbs and against the Bulgarians is so shallow and fallible that it can equally well be used by the Bulgarians against the Serbs. The way he proves that the peculiarities of the Bulgarian language are Serbian can be quite safely used by the Bulgarians to prove similarly that there is no Serbian language at all, but that we here, in Belgrade, write in Bulgarian...
Novakovic (1842 - 1915), an eminent Serbian scholar, who at
first held correct
scholarly positions, ridiculing the chauvinistic pretentions of Milos
as regards the Bulgarian people, but later became the first ideologist
Great is the joy of all present here in this sacred place - the school! Yes! It is really great! At this bright, solemn and long awaited moment when the people are full of joy and their joy is vividly expressed on their faces, this joy encourages me, too, to meet Your Grace and greet you with this short speech — welcome!
But today our joy is not only ours, this spiritual festivity is not enjoyed by a few compatriots only, but by millions of Bulgarians. The Bulgarian people living in the land from the White Danube to the Aegean Sea, and from the Black Sea to the boundless lands in the vast Ottoman Empire, know and rejoice at the present solemn reception of our spiritual father — the Right Reverend Mr. Damaskin.
It is true, brothers! The present generation is fortunate because many before went to Heaven and cannot witness this sublime moment for our people while we are alive and are able to see the realization of our dear dream — independent Bulgarian Exarchate with its full hierarchy. Let us always thank our Lord Jesus Christ, because he delivered us from the detestable yoke of the Phanariots, showed us the right way to achieve the independence of our Church.
This day is memorable for us because, after the long night which covered us with darkness, it is only now that there are some faint glimpses of light above us. This day, I say, will remain in the history of our people, because after the long period during which we were as nothing, we are at last celebrating a victory of our people. For this reason, this is the most appropriate moment to say a word or two about ourselves — what we were, what we are, and what we can be if we take advantage of the experiences of the past.
History teaches and tells us that at one time we were a glorious people! After that many circumstances, but most of all the malicious Phanariots, inflicted heavy and deep wounds upon us. The Phanariot bishops used all possible means just to prevent the slightest progress on our part. And we, instead of being proud of our dear Bulgarian name, were ashamed of it, and — in a word — we sank into darkness and ignorance.
But today we can say, just
said in the Holy Writ about the prophet Daniel: 'In my simplicity I was
from the mouth of the lion/ Our sincerity, honesty and justice saved us
helped us to see our way to progress. Having rid ourselves from our
- the Greeks -
forever, we can now
hearing the Bulgarian language spoken in our churches. Everywhere there
Bulgarian schools and our youth is taught to respect our people and to
sacrifice everything for its interests. Schools for girls were
where our maidens are taught to become educated mothers, able to bring
children as true sons and daughters of
From this it follows that the bright light of the dawn has reached us, too, promising us a splendid day and even a more splendid evening. The Phanariots are sad and sorrowful, but we are happy and full of indescribable joy.
We have achieved all our rights solely by means of the constant perseverence and unity of all the people; it is this which has preserved us from the corrupt rule and abuse of power by alien clergy. Many attempted to drive us away from this road to salvation, but the Bulgarians pursued their way with a boldness that surprised the world; that is why we must follow the same road in the future and look forward to a greater advance. Therefore, let us throw ourselves into energetic work for our education and then nobody will be able to say that we are stupid and incapable of having our own Church, or that we are not even Orthodox Christians, but 'schismatics', as the treacherous Phanariots call us. Knowledge and only knowledge tells us and will tell us how to avoid the deceitful persuasions of our restless enemies, who desire to divert us from the true way.
This is the moment, brothers! This is the time when, provided with a proper shepherd by the Exarchate, our diocese will be led by him, as I said before, to our bright future. His Grace, as a Bulgarian, will be always close to our hearts and will work for the good and the success of his brother Bulgarians.
You know that for the last 3 or 4 years there has been a Bulgarian school in our town, where the Bulgarian children of both sexes are being educated free of charge. But since our commune has not a single place suitable for this purpose, the school moves from one place to another, in rented houses and was even sometimes closed. This irregular situation compelled Bulgarian children to go to Greek schools to their own disadvantage and to the disadvantage of our nation. It is superfluous to say that this state of affairs is the source of the weakness of our nationality here and a very bad advertisement for us ourselves. That is why the Bulgarian society Vuzrozhdenie in Salonica decided to elevate the spirit of the Bulgarians here by building a new church and a new school for our town, a matter of great importance not only for the advance of the Bulgarians in Salonica but in Macedonia as a whole.
Richer in feelings than in
we, the few members of Vuzrozhdenie, do not feel able to
matter of such importance to the desired end, relying only on our poor
resources: we kindly beg all our compatriots from outside to help us in
enterprise, the success of which, we repeat, depends entirely on their
patriotism and generosity. We were already fortunate to receive the
help of our
We want to believe that our appeal will be well received in every Bulgarian heart. We think that the 11th of May is one of the most suitable days for every Bulgarian soul to express its gratitude and respect for the great benefactors of our people - the patrons of our church.
Thus, if Salonica which gave birth to the unforgettable first pillars of our Bulgarian church, and nourished the founders of the Slav alphabet, which brought the word of God to all Slav people, if their birth place, we repeat, is worthy to be embelished at the time of the second revival of our national church hierarchy (thanks to the merciful eye with which our august king and father - the Sultan - looks upon the Bulgarians) with a monument - erected in gratitude for their inestimable services to the people, through voluntary donations from all the sons of Bulgaria, it seems that there can be no better monument than a splendid Bulgarian church in which the word of God will sound in the language of St St Cyril and Methodius, and a public Bulgarian school (Alma Mater) - in their honour and with their name, a school, which will serve to spread the seeds of education among new generations in their native town. Here, the initiative for this sacred cause must come from our people, and we hope that soon their example will be followed by all our brother-Slavs, who are able to appreciate the holy mission of our first apostles and they will readily sacrifice in their name whatever they can as their Christian mite, thus contributing to the glory of their names and their memory in Salonica.
Fully confident that the respected communes and library clubs throughout our country will understand our desire and will join us in our endeavours (we are speaking of Salonica), we hope that they will popularize the contents of this appeal among our compatriots all over the country, explaining, whenever necessary, its exact significance, and will collect voluntary contributions for the altar of the two holy brothers in Salonica. With feelings sincere love, we stretch out a brotherly hand to all the members of the communes’ library clubs, and societies, to all people working in the field of our public education, and congratulate them on our national holiday - the 11th of May, the triumph of triumphs for the Bulgarian people, in particular, and the whole Slav world in general, we venture to sign our names as their collaborators.
For the Board of Trustees of the Vuzrozhdenie society in Salonica: Record-keeper: М. К. Boubotinov1
1 Mihail K. Boubotinov, born in
Sofia, a participant in the revolutionary movement